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Best Affordable Android Phones — Google, Nokia, more

Mish Boyka

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At this point in time, you just don’t need a flagship to get a good everyday Android experience. With initiatives like Android One, Android Go, and Google’s own step into the affordable market, Google has made mid-range and even low-range devices even more usable and enticing than ever. With so many options littering the market nowadays, it’s hard to tell which devices are even worth your time. Let’s dig through and get to know some of the best affordable Android phones you can buy, as of October 2020.

BEST AFFORDABLE ANDROID PHONES – AUGUST 2020

New for October:

  • Google Pixel 4a 5G
  • Motorola Moto G9 Plus
  • Realme 7 Pro
  • Fairphone 3+
  • Teracube 2E

Google Pixel 4a

Arguably the best Pixel to date thanks to the “right” compromises

After an extended wait, the Google Pixel 4a has finally arrived with little to no fanfare. The defacto affordable Android has still been the previous generation for anyone looking to get the best of the Pixel series without breaking the bank.

We all know just how good the Pixel 3a and 3a XL were for their respective asking prices when dropping at I/O 2019. Well, this time around you’ve only got one device size and colorway to choose from as there is no XL variant for 2020. However, it’s a much-improved experience thanks to several key hardware improvements.

As for the specifications, the Google Pixel 4a measures in at 5.8-inches and has an FHD+ OLED display at 1080 by 2340 pixels in a 19.5:9 aspect ratio. There is a punch hole notch in the upper left, and this has the highest screen-to-body ratio of any Pixel to date.

Inside, you’ll get a Snapdragon 730G processor, 6GB of RAM, 128GB of storage, and a 3,140mAh battery. It features the same 12.2-megapixel main sensor found on its siblings, the Pixel 4 and 4 XL, too. Like last year, audiophiles will be happy at the inclusion of a 3.5mm headphone jack at the top of the plastic unibody.

The design is only partially based upon the Pixel 4 series, with a square-ish camera notch but a soft-touch plastic back rather than frosted glass. There no room for Face Unlocks though, as the Pixel 4a relies on a rear fingerprint reader — ideal in a post-COVID world where masks are steadily becoming mandatory.

Why it’s probably the best affordable Android phone you can buy today:

It’s tough to quantify what makes an “experience” but the Pixel 4a offers an experience that belies its price-tag. While it comes pre-loaded with Android 10, you’ll be able to update to Android 11 in a matter of weeks when it officially launches.

Just as we saw last year, the Google Pixel 4a solo camera setup is lightyears ahead of the competition at the same price-point. If you value simple point-and-shoot photography, this is arguably the best bang for your buck device out there right now.

Where to buy the Google Pixel 4a:

This time around, Google has actually dipped the start price of the Pixel 3a to $349, making it an absolute no-brainer. The most obvious place to get the Pixel 4a is directly from Google, however, Amazon has one of the best pre-order offers for the Pixel 4a. You can get the Pixel 4a with an official case for just $389 otherwise you can pick it up for $349 shipped.

Best Buy is also stocking the Google Pixel 4a unlocked, while Google Fi has the Pixel 4a from $14.54 per month. Other carriers such as Verizon, T-Mobile, and AT&T have yet to confirm if the device will be made available on plans.


Best Android phones you can buy


Samsung Galaxy A71 5G

5G without the associated price tag

Despite the fact that 5G is still an in-development wireless tech, it hasn’t stopped the superfast data connection method from bumping up smartphone prices across the board. If you want a solid future-proof affordable Android smartphone, then the Samsung Galaxy A71 5G might be an ideal solution.

Brand new for June 2020, the Samsung Galaxy A71 5G, for those who missed previous announcements, is the top-tier of the Galaxy A-series. It offers a 6.7-inch FHD+ AMOLED display with a hole-punch camera cutout, a 32MP selfie camera, 64MP + 12MP ultrawide + 5MP macro + 5MP depth camera array on the rear, 128GB of storage, 6GB of RAM, a 4,500 mAh battery, and Android 10, too.

It’s worth noting that the Galaxy A71 5G is the first smartphone to come to the United States with Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 765G processor packed inside. This CPU has been designed to be an alternative to the company’s flagship Snapdragon 865 chip, but it hasn’t been released in too many phones so far.

Why it’s probably one of the best affordable Android phones you can buy:

You get all of the best portions of the Galaxy S20 series but at a lower price-point. Plus, the A71 has the exact same chip that will come in the Google Pixel 5 later this year, which means that you’ll have comparable overall performance. It’s also available in three distinct colors, which means more design choices than the Galaxy A51.

Where to buy Samsung Galaxy A71 5G:

The Galaxy A71 5G will be available from June 19 from both T-Mobile and Sprint. Later this summer, Samsung says the device will go on sale at Verizon (presumably with a special model) and AT&T, as well as being sold unlocked through retail channels such as Samsung.com. Pricing lands at $599.

Google Pixel 4a 5G

Hints of the Pixel 5 but at a slightly lower price

We’re actually yet to get our hands on the Pixel 4a 5G, but with essentially the same DNA as the Pixel 4a and Pixel 5 but with some notable tweaks, it’s going to be hard to ignore. At $499 it’s going to be a tough Android phone to beat thanks to the affordable pricing.

Google Pixel 4a 5G

It will likely have the best sub-$600 smartphone camera you can buy at this price. Plus you get all of the benefits of the “Pixel Experience” without the associated price-tag. The Pixel 3a and 4a have proven that Google can lower costs and still pump out a smartphone that provides an exceptional experience — we’d imagine the 4a 5G will be no different.

On top of these benefits, should you want a large Pixel device, this is the largest of the late-2020 lineup at 6.2-inches. It comes with a 60Hz FHD+ OLED, Qualcomm Snapdragon 765G 5G-enabled chipset, 6GB of RAM, 128GB of storage, 3,800mAh battery, but is only available in one color option: Just Black.

Why it’s probably the best overall affordable Google Pixel phone you can buy:

Very few Android phones can provide the same cohesive experience and update the promptness of the Google Pixel series. The camera quality on offer will undoubtedly be second-to-none within the sub-$500 price bracket too without needing to stack in unnecessary additions such as macro lenses and zoom options.

Google’s approach to their flagship lineup in 2020 means that the Pixel 4a 5G is really a hybrid that will provide the accessibility of the Pixel 4a but with much of what will undoubtedly ensure the Pixel 5 is a fantastic device — plus you get a headphone port.

Where to buy the Pixel 4a 5G:

The Pixel 4a 5G isn’t available right now but it is up for pre-order and will ship on October 29th. At $499, there are some solid pre-order deals with a ton of retailers such as Amazon, B&HPhoto, Best Buy, and Verizon has an exclusive model in white called the Google Pixel 4a 5G UW — to highlight the ultra-wideband 5G network it will be utilizing. It is, however, $100 more.

OnePlus 7T

Still the best not-quite-a-flagship phone you can buy

The OnePlus 7T is arguably not that affordable, but it manages to strike an excellent balance. The important flagship specs to make the phone as fast as you could ever need are matched by sensible compromises to keep the Android device affordable.

In raw specifications, the OnePlus 7T outpaces or at least matches flagship contenders like the Pixel 4 and most late 2019 flagships, packing a Snapdragon 855+, 8GB of RAM, 128GB or 256GB of UFS 3.0 storage. This is arguably better than most 2020 mid-rangers, and is actually the best 4G-only configuration you can still buy.

OxygenOS Open Beta 2 OnePlus 7T

With a retail price now in or around $500 USD, this is most definitely a premium device but at a price lower than you are used to. The entire package even manages to exceed some handsets that cost twice the entry price of the OnePlus 7T. Expect that price-tag to drop even further as the OnePlus 8T is set to hit the market in the coming days too!

The OnePlus 7T also uses an impressive 6.55-inch, 2400×1080 resolution display with a super smooth 90Hz refresh rate. As we noted in our review the 20:9 aspect ratio really ensures that movies and TV shows look great. While the viewing angles are superb, with HDR10+ certification also being a massive boon.

Having an ultra-clean experience with OxygenOS is yet another benefit — and worth the slightly bumped costs alone. The triple camera setup might not win any awards, but it definitely goes toe-to-toe with almost any smartphone under $500.

Why it’s probably the best overall affordable Android phone you can buy:

Even one year after release, the OnePlus 7T is outright one of the best smartphones on the market because it straddles the high-end and affordable sections without the associated “5G tax” so effortlessly. While it is — in some cases — double the entry price of many other budget devices on this list, it includes some serious hardware that will only increase longevity and ensure everyday performance remains fluid and consistent.

You get superb software support, a gorgeous design, beautiful screen, super-fast charging, and it doesn’t break the bank. OnePlus smartphones are the go-to for many around the globe, and it’s easy to see why with such a fantastic piece of hardware.

5 reasons to pick up the OnePlus 7T

Where to buy OnePlus 7T:

Where you can buy the OnePlus 7T and how much it will cost varies from country to country. You can pick up from some carriers in the United States, Amazon, or even from OnePlus 7T direct for just $499.


OTHER EXCELLENT AFFORDABLE ANDROID SMARTPHONES

OnePlus Nord

It would be foolish not to add the recently released OnePlus Nord to any list of excellent affordable Android phones even with some regional restrictions. At £379 in the UK or €399 in EU markets, you get an impressive device for a low price.

The OnePlus Nord feels more like a direct successor to the OnePlus 7T or  OnePlus 7T Lite in many ways but is directly below the OnePlus 8 and 8 Pro in terms of design and features. You get a reasonable quad-camera setup at the rear, dual-selfie camera, big battery, gorgeous design, and an impressive 90Hz display.

Looking purely at the specifications, it’s a solid smartphone with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 765G chipset, 8 or 12GB of RAM, 128 or 256GB of internal storage, a 4,115mAh battery with 30W charge speeds, plus that aforementioned camera. All of that for under £400 or €400 is impressive.

For that entry price, you’ll get two full OS upgrades plus a further year of security patches — although OnePlus has been known to support devices for longer in some cases. The biggest draw here is the clean OxygenOS experience, which makes it harder to ignore, even if the camera could be a little better.

US fans will have to import if they want to get the OnePlus Nord though, as it isn’t officially available in North America beyond a “limited beta” in the coming weeks.

Nokia 5.3

Since rising from the ashes as the “new” Nokia, we’ve seen a flurry of high-quality affordable Android phones from the brand that was once known for Windows Phone.

In some ways, the Nokia 5.3 is actually a better purchase than the Nokia 7.2 thanks to a snappy Qualcomm Snapdragon 665 chipset, 6GB of RAM, 64GB of storage, and overall similar experience. The Nokia 5.3 has easily overtaken the Nokia 4.2 as probably the best affordable phone made by HMD Global. A quad camera, excellent battery, and overall great experience can be had for just $199.

At $199.99, it’s hard to truly fault the Nokia 5.3 You’ll get at least two full OS upgrades, a decent camera, reasonably good performance, and a build that is impressive at this price point. It’s just a really sensibly priced smartphone that gives you a heck of a lot without too much corner-cutting.  For an elderly relative, a backup smartphone, or someone’s ever smartphone, then the Nokia 5.3 is a really exceptional choice.

Samsung Galaxy A51

Like any Samsung Galaxy device, the A51 offers a little bit of the recent top-tier S series devices but at a reduced price. The Galaxy A51 is more than just a taster though, with an experience mimicking the latest high-end Samsung smartphones.

While most affordable Android phones tend to go with cheaper LCD displays, the 6.5-inch FHD+ Super AMOLED display is typically impressive and includes a punch-hole notch — dropping Samsung’s “Infinity-U” design found on the older A50. That notch houses a 32MP selfie camera, and lower down on that display there’s also an in-display fingerprint sensor hidden underneath.

Samsung Galaxy A51 - affordable Android phones

The Samsung Galaxy A51 also packs in an Exynos 9611 processor, 4GB of RAM, 128GB of internal storage, and support for microSD cards up to 512GB. There’s also a 4,000mAh battery, NFC, fast charging, and a headphone jack. Android 10 is also available out of the box with One UI 2.0 on top — which is the best version of the third-party skin to date.

There’s also a quad-camera array on the back of the Galaxy A50. That consists of a primary 48MP main sensor, a 12MP ultra-wide-angle lens for even wider shots, a 5MP macro lens, and a 5MP sensor used for capturing depth. All that for just under $399? Sign us up.

Google Pixel 3a / Pixel 3a XL

For the last three years, Google’s Pixel phones have been the pinnacle of the Android phone experience. Pixel phones offer consistent, monthly updates, exceptional camera quality, and a pleasantly near-stock Android OS. Thus far, this experience has come at a flagship price (barring purchasing an older, discounted model). While the 3a may have been superseded by the Pixel 4a, it’s still a great purchase for a number of reasons.

Pixel 3a affordable Android phones

If you really do care about the specs, there are some important differences you should be aware of. For example, the Pixel 3a has a 5.6-inch, 2220×1080 display, while the Pixel 3a XL, the larger phone, has a 6-inch display with a smaller resolution of 2160×1080. Thankfully, both models still feature OLED panels. Additionally, the Pixel 3a XL has a 3700mAh battery to the smaller Pixel 3a’s 3000mAh one.

Beyond these core differences, the devices are identical, with a Snapdragon 670 processor, 4GB of RAM, and 64GB of storage. The design basis for the 3a is the Pixel 3’s “glass sandwich” design, which has been replaced with a plastic back. Honestly, that can be seen as both a positive or negative, depending on whether you prefer design or durability.

Audiophiles will also be happy to know that the Pixel 3a and Pixel 3a XL still feature a traditional 3.5mm headphone jack on the top of the chassis. The duo also runs Android 10 and can even have the Android 11 Beta installed, which no other sub-$500 smartphones can even match.

Motorola Moto G9 Plus

Moto G9 Plus launch - affordable Android phones

It wouldn’t be a roundup of some of the best affordable Android devices without a few entries from Motorola. The Moto G9 Plus comes with a 6.8-inch FHD+ display in a 2,400 by 1,080-pixel resolution, which does include an upper-left punch hole. Inside, it relies on the same chipset as the Google Pixel 4a, the Qualcomm Snapdragon 730G. Plus, it also includes 4GB of RAM and 128GB of internal storage. There is also a large 5,000mAh battery powering this direct Pixel 4a rival, with support for 30W fast charging also included.

At the rear of the Moto G9 Plus, you’ll find a quad-camera setup that relies on a 64-megapixel main sensor, 8-megapixel ultra-wide-angle lens, 2-megapixel macro sensor, and 2-megapixel depth sensor for bokeh effects. It’s pretty much a by-the-numbers setup at this stage of 2020 but it should be solid nonetheless. The selfie camera comes rated at 16-megapixels.

As a sequel to the incredibly popular Moto G8, the G9 Plus is an ideal candidate for your hard-earned cash. You can grab the Moto G9 Plus in Rose Gold and Indigo Blue, with pricing around the $300 in the US it’s not a bad deal for the package on offer.

Realme 7 Pro

realme 7 pro - affordable Android phones

Likely not a name that many outside of Asia will have heard too much of, Realme has steadily started to branch out into Europe and the Realme 7 Pro is the latest such device to reach European shores. The firm is part of BBK family, which also includes Oppo, OnePlus, and Vivo. Sharing some of the DNA of such well-known brands is definitely a good thing.

The Realme 7 Pro comes with a 6.4-inch FHD+ Super AMOLED display with an upper-left punch-hole notch, Qualcomm Snapdragon 720G, 8GB of RAM, 4,500mAh battery with 65W charging, and 128GB of microSD expandable storage.

There’s even an in-display fingerprint scanner for biometric unlocks. There is also plenty of photographic options out-of-the-box with a quad-camera setup that consists of a 64-megapixel main sensor, 8-megapixel ultra-wide-angle lens, 2-megapixel macro sensor, and 2-megapixel black and white portrait sensor.

You can pick up the Realme 7 Pro for under £300 in the UK, which is a really good deal considering the package on offer. It’s unlikely to come to the US but would play nicely with GSMA networks if imported — which is still something we don’t suggest doing.

TCL 10L

Not that well known outside of the TV business in the United States, TCL announced a move into the Android smartphone market back at CES 2020 with the TCL 10 series. The best value of these is undoubtedly the TCL 10L. It’s an affordable Android phone with an overall impressive spec sheet for just $239.

This device offers a 6.53-inch LCD display with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 665 processor, 6GB of RAM, 64GB of storage, a quad-camera setup with a primary 48MP shooter, 8MP ultrawide, 2MP macro, and 2MP depth sensor. There’s also a rear-facing capacitive fingerprint sensor, a headphone jack, a microSD card slot, and a 4,000mAh battery, too.

It’s impressive that you get all of that for under $400, let alone $250. With an all-screen design and durable plastic build, it’s likely going to be a great option for those on a tight budget but wanting a little bit of everything on their smartphone. Availability isn’t wide at the moment, but the TCL 10L is expected to head to more retailers soon.

LG Stylo 6

Part of the popular LG Stylo line, the Stylo 6 gives you a heck of a lot for just $179. LG smartphones often fly well under the radar for a number of reasons. For one, LG doesn’t tend to publicize their mid-range and affordable Android devices all too well.

lg stylo 6 android boost mobile

A popular choice for those shopping for a new smartphone on a budget, there is a lot to love about the LG Stylo 6. It comes with a MediaTek Helio P35 2.3GHz octa-core processor, 3GB of RAM, and 64GB of storage (with microSD support). The device also includes a 6.8-inch FHD+ display, 4,000 mAh battery with USB-C and fast charging, Android 10 out-of-the-box, and a 13MP selfie camera.

There’s also a triple-camera array on the back with a 13MP primary backed by 5MP ultrawide and depth cameras. A headphone jack and a “spring-loaded stylus pen” also help round off the entire package. The LG Stylo 6 usually retails for $219, but Boost Mobile has a launch promotion ongoing that brings the price down to $179.

Motorola Moto One Action

Not many Android phones have adopted the 21:9 aspect ratio, but the Motorola Moto One Action joins the recent Sony Xperia devices in bringing the cinematic aspect ratio to mobile. It’s an impressive affordable Android phone for under $300.

The new Motorola One Action packs a triple-camera array and mid-range specs. Under the hood, there’s a Samsung Exynos 9609 processor, 4GB of RAM, 128GB of UFS storage, a 3,500 mAh battery, and a headphone jack too.

motorola one action

It’s also an Android One device with Pie, Google’s Digital Wellbeing tools, and the promise of timely updates and security patches. Some of Motorola’s software tricks are also included with Moto Display, Moto Actions, and the company’s One Button Nav gestures.

Motorola Moto G8 / G8+ / G8 Power Lite

The latest in the Moto G series, the Moto G8, G8+, and G8 Power Lite, all continue in the tradition of offering fair specs at a reasonably fair price. All three models feature the same Snapdragon 665 processor, which should ensure mostly consistent performance, give or take the differences in RAM.

The standard Motorola Moto G8 is built on the solid foundation of 4GB of RAM and 64 GB of storage space. Externally, the Moto G8 also features a 6.4-inch, 720×1560 display with a punch-hole notch, triple (16MP / 8MP / 2MP) rear cameras, and a rear fingerprint sensor. Official US pricing isn’t available as yet, but we would expect a roughly $300 price tag when available.

moto g8

The next model down is the Moto G8 Power Lite, which comes with With a 6.5-inch HD+ display, the Moto G8 Power Lite is powered by a MediaTek Helio P35 chipset, 4GB of RAM, and 64GB of onboard storage — that you can increase up to 256GB with a microSD card. As this is a “Power” device, it comes with a massive 5,000mAh cell but relies on a micro-USB port with charging at up to 10W speeds.

At the rear, you’ll find a triple camera setup that consists of a 16-megapixel main sensor, 2-megapixel macro lens, and 2-megapixel depth sensor. The selfie camera comes in an 8-megapixel flavor and is hidden within a display notch. There is also a rear-mounted capacitive fingerprint reader for biometric unlocks.

The biggest downside is that the G8 Power Lite will, unfortunately, ship with Android Pie rather than Android 10 out of the box. It’s also not entirely clear if the device will get updated to the latest versions of the OS. Given Motorola’s track record we would be very surprised if it gets updated soon. This model is currently available from Amazon for $249, Best Buy, and B&H Photo.

For another $100 discount, you can pick up the Moto G8 Play with a meager 2GB of RAM and 32GB of storage. For the same price though, you’d be better off picking up an Android One phone from elsewhere on this list.

Moto E / G Fast

moto g fast affordable Android phones

Announced at the start of June, the Moto E and G Fast are both sub-$200 smartphones that might be worth a look if you want a solid backup smartphone. Starting with the Moto G Fast, the 6.4-inch smartphones will come with an HD+ LCD display complete with a punch-hole notch. As you’d expect, the internals are modest at best with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 665 chipset, 3GB of RAM, 32GB of internal storage, and a 4,000mAh battery.

There is also a capacitive fingerprint reader alongside a triple camera setup that consists of a 16-megapixel main sensor, 2-megapixel macro lens, and 8-megapixel ultra-wide-angle. For those wondering about the selfie camera on the Moto G Fast, it is in the 8-megapixel flavor.

As for the Moto E, it will come with even more modest specifications. The 6.2-inch HD display includes a dewdrop notch. You’ll find a Qualcomm Snapdragon 632 and 2GB of RAM under the hood. 32GB of internal storage is included.  It too comes with a rear fingerprint scanner but has a dual-camera setup that consists of a 13-megapixel primary sensor and 2-megapixel depth sensor. Adding to that duo is a 5-megapixel selfie camera.

Both the Moto E and Moto G Fast come with Android 10 right out of the box. However, we’re not quite sure how the latest operating system will run on such low-end hardware. We can’t imagine it will be the “finest” experience all things considered.

Both devices are already available for pre-order direct from Motorola, Amazon, B&H, and other retailers with an expected June 12 release. At present, you will only be able to pick up the Moto G Fast and Moto E in unlocked form, but carriers are set to offer them in the future. As for pricing, the Moto G Fast will set you back $199.99, while the Moto E will cost just $149.99. You’ll be able to pick up both devices in a range of colors.

Moto E
Moto G Fast

EXCELLENT ANDROID ONE SMARTPHONES

If you’re looking for the stock Android experience, look no further than Android One. Android One is Google’s push for consistency, against the well-meaning but sometimes power-hungry OEM themes placed on top of Android. Devices running Android One have an almost Pixel-like stock Android experience.

Also, by being able to skip porting (or updating) their custom theme to the latest version of Android, manufacturers are normally able to bring the latest versions of Android and security updates to Android One devices in a timely manner. As far as affordable Android phones go, it’s hard not to recommend one running Android One.

Nokia 4.2

Nokia 4.2 - affordable Android phones

Nokia has truly cornered the market for great affordable Android One phones. The best model in their lineup to get the best of affordability and great features is the Nokia 4.2. It features a Snapdragon 439 processor with 3GB of RAM and 32GB of storage space. The device comes in black and pink, with the pink being reminiscent of (but much bolder than) the Google Pixel 3’s “Not Pink.”Despite these reduced specs, compared to the 7.2 and 8.3, the Nokia 4.2 is still easy to recommend, thanks to “premium” features like a Google Assistant button and face unlock. Combined with Android One’s consistent updates and a retail price of $189, the Nokia 4.2 strikes the perfect balance for its price range.

The Nokia 4.2 will be superseded by the Nokia 5.2 in the coming months but still is a fantastic affordable Android phone. As you may expect, though, the Nokia 4.2 only works on GSM networks in the US for just $110.


Nokia 2.2

Android Go specializes in making Android work for the tightest of budgets of all kinds — financial, mobile data, storage, etc. Android Go includes slimmed-down versions of the Google apps you know and love, that also slim down on data usage where possible. Their availability in the United States is extremely limited, however, which makes selection difficult.

Probably one of the most surprisingly impressive “cheap” smartphones that we’ve tested in a long time. The Nokia 2.2 also happens to be one of the most up-to-date affordable Android phones on the market right now. It was recently updated to Android 10, which means you’ll get all the benefits of the latest OS without having to spend a great deal.

It does have very modest specs but does come with a removable battery, dual SIM support, a headphone jack, and plastic design. Overall though, it’s far ahead of the competition at under $100.

EXCELLENT ANDROID GO SMARTPHONES

Nokia C2

If you’re not interested in the Nokia 2.2, then maybe the C2 is more your style. The device isn’t available quite yet but will come with a 5.7-inch display, a quad-core UniSoc chipset, just 1GB of RAM, 16GB of internal storage (that can be expanded up to 64GB with a microSD card), and a headphone port.

Like most ultra-budget smartphones, the Nokia C2 relies on the outdated micro USB for charging, but the relatively small 2,800mAh battery is user-removable. Another notable hardware inclusion is that of a dedicated Google Assistant button, which allows you to quickly enter voice search and give the Assistant commands.

Nokia C2

It will likely go on sale in the coming months but we’d expect very modest pricing.

THE BEST AFFORDABLE ‘SUSTAINABLE’ ANDROIDS

Fairphone 3+

Fairphone 3 - affordable Android phones

The original “sustainable” phone, the Fairphone 3+ is a minor bump over its predecessor the Fairphone with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 632 chipset, 4GB of RAM, 64GB of microSD expandable storage, a 3,040mAh removable battery, fingerprint reader, and 3.5 headphone port.

It’s a modest phone to say the least, but does include a 48-megapixel rear camera and 16-megapixel front-facing selfie camera too. The 5.65-inch FHD+ isn’t the highest-fidelity but this is not meant to be a “bleeding edge” smartphone. Fairphone is committed to supporting their devices longer though, with the Fairphone 3+ coming with Android 10 pre-installed and at least

As the most well-known smartphone that “cares for people and planet” the Fairphone 3+ is fully repairable and made from 40% recycled plastic. You can swap out the battery, camera module, display, and more. The Fairphone 3 and 3+ have also been awarded a 10/10 rating by iFixit, which is not an honor bestowed on many tech products period.

At the moment, the Fairphone 3+ is only “officially” available in Europe, but it can be ordered in the US but your mileage may vary due to network infrastructure and GSMA band incompatibility.

Teracube 2E

Teracube 2e launch - affordable Android phones

Like the Fairphone 3+, the Teracube 2E is marketed as a sustainable, affordable Android phone that leverages modest hardware but should — in theory — offer a lower carbon footprint.

The Redmond-based firm behind the Teracube 2E claims that the upcoming device includes a fully biodegradable protective case, includes 25% recycled materials, and has an impressively low $99 introductory price. We say “introductory,” as this is yet another IndieGogo campaign that includes stretch goals.

It packs in the modest MediaTek A25 chipset, includes 4GB of RAM, 64GB of internal storage, and has a 4,000mAh user-replaceable battery. The 6.1-inch HD+ IPS LCD display has a 720-by-1,560-pixel resolution and includes a dewdrop notch, with some sizeable bezels thrown in for good measure.

Other hardware includes a 3.5mm-headphone port, plus a rear-mounted capacitive fingerprint scanner for biometric unlocks. The firm also claims that the Teracube 2E can be fully torn down with a screwdriver. No glue has been used to help reduce the environmental impact of the device.

It does or at least will ship with Android 10, but the Teracube 2E is set to be eligible for 3 — yes, three — years of OS updates and also includes a four-year warranty as part of the “White Glove” VIP service. If you want your own 2E, then you can register for this “early-bird” $99 pricing over on the official IndieGogo launch page. Once this allocation is sold, pricing will jump to $199 with shipping set to begin in early December 2020.

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Get a PDF Sample Copy of the Report to understand the structure of the complete report:(Including Full TOC, List of Tables & Figures, Chart): https://www.alexareports.com/report-sample/1661025

The global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market is estimated to reach xxx million USD in 2020 and projected to grow at the CAGR of xx% during 2020-2026. According to the latest report added to the online repository of Alexareports the Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market has witnessed unprecedented growth till 2020. The extrapolated future growth is expected to continue at higher rates by 2026.

Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segment by Type covers: Cloud-Based eDHR Software, On-Premise eDHR Software

Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segment by Application covers: Medical and Pharmaceutical, Industrial, Manufacturing

After reading the Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market report, readers get insight into:

*Major drivers and restraining factors, opportunities and challenges, and the competitive landscape
*New, promising avenues in key regions
*New revenue streams for all players in emerging markets
*Focus and changing role of various regulatory agencies in bolstering new opportunities in various regions
*Demand and uptake patterns in key industries of the Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market
*New research and development projects in new technologies in key regional markets
*Changing revenue share and size of key product segments during the forecast period
*Technologies and business models with disruptive potential

Based on region, the global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market has been segmented into Americas (North America ((the U.S. and Canada),) and Latin Americas), Europe (Western Europe (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, UK and Rest of Europe) and Eastern Europe), Asia Pacific (Japan, India, China, Australia & South Korea, and Rest of Asia Pacific), and Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Qatar, South Africa, and Rest of the Middle East & Africa).

Key questions answered in the report:

What will the market growth rate of Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market?
What are the key factors driving the global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market size?
Who are the key manufacturers in Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market space?
What are the market opportunities, market risk, and market overview of the Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market?
What are sales, revenue, and price GFN of top manufacturers of Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market?
Who are the distributors, traders, and dealers of Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market?
What are the Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software industries?
What are sales, revenue, and price GFN by types and applications of Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software market?
What are sales, revenue, and price GFN by regions of Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software industries?

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Table of Contents
Section 1 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Product Definition
Section 2 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Manufacturer Share and Market Overview
2.1 Global Manufacturer Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Shipments
2.2 Global Manufacturer Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Revenue
2.3 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Overview
2.4 COVID-19 Impact on Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Industry
Section 3 Manufacturer Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.1 MasterControl Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.1.1 MasterControl Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Shipments, Price, Revenue and Gross profit 2015-2020
3.1.2 MasterControl Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Distribution by Region
3.1.3 MasterControl Interview Record
3.1.4 MasterControl Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Profile
3.1.5 MasterControl Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Product Specification
3.2 Siemens Industry Software Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.2.1 Siemens Industry Software Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Shipments, Price, Revenue and Gross profit 2015-2020
3.2.2 Siemens Industry Software Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Distribution by Region
3.2.3 Interview Record
3.2.4 Siemens Industry Software Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Overview
3.2.5 Siemens Industry Software Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Product Specification
3.3 LZ Lifescience Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.3.1 LZ Lifescience Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Shipments, Price, Revenue and Gross profit 2015-2020
3.3.2 LZ Lifescience Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Distribution by Region
3.3.3 Interview Record
3.3.4 LZ Lifescience Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Overview
3.3.5 LZ Lifescience Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Product Specification
3.4 Engineering USA Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.5 42Q Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction
3.6 Idhasoft Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Business Introduction

Section 4 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Region Level)
4.1 North America Country
4.1.1 United States Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.1.2 Canada Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.2 South America Country
4.2.1 South America Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.3 Asia Country
4.3.1 China Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.3.2 Japan Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.3.3 India Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.3.4 Korea Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.4 Europe Country
4.4.1 Germany Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.4.2 UK Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.4.3 France Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.4.4 Italy Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.4.5 Europe Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.5 Other Country and Region
4.5.1 Middle East Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.5.2 Africa Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.5.3 GCC Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Size and Price GFN 2015-2020
4.6 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Region Level) GFN 2015-2020
4.7 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Region Level) GFN
Section 5 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Product Type Level)
5.1 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Product Type Level) Market Size 2015-2020
5.2 Different Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Product Type Price 2015-2020
5.3 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Product Type Level) GFN
Section 6 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Industry Level)
6.1 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Industry Level) Market Size 2015-2020
6.2 Different Industry Price 2015-2020
6.3 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Industry Level) GFN
Section 7 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Channel Level)
7.1 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Channel Level) Sales Volume and Share 2015-2020
7.2 Global Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Segmentation (Channel Level) GFN
Section 8 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Market Forecast 2020-2025
8.1 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Market Forecast (Region Level)
8.2 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Market Forecast (Product Type Level)
8.3 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Market Forecast (Industry Level)
8.4 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Market Forecast (Channel Level)
Section 9 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Product Type
9.1 Cloud-Based eDHR Software Product Introduction
9.2 On-Premise eDHR Software Product Introduction
Section 10 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Segmentation Industry
10.1 Medical and Pharmaceutical Clients
10.2 Industrial Clients
10.3 Manufacturing Clients
Section 11 Electronic Device History Record (eDHR) Software Cost of Production GFN
11.1 Raw Material Cost GFN
11.2 Technology Cost GFN
11.3 Labor Cost GFN
11.4 Cost Overview
Section 12 Conclusion

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Entertainment

Soap2day 2020-21 an Illegal HD Movies Download Website, Latest Movies News

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Soap2day 2020-21 an Illegal HD Movies Download Website, Latest Movies News

Soap2day 2020-21 is a downpour site to download Hollywood motion pictures and shows and watch Soap multi-day Movies Free Online from soapgate organization. The Soap2day stage offers clients admittance to free spilling of Hollywood films and other material in English. Online soap2day is regularly observed posting on a few mirror pages and intermediaries every now and then to lead the criminal activity and to stay away from equity.

About SOAP2DAY 2020-21?

SOAP2DAY is an unlawful, free film site that you can access on soap2day com by means of the Internet. The site was made by obscure designers in late 2018 and has since filled altogether in prominence, being seen each and every month by a large number of individuals around the globe. SOAP2DAY ‘s notoriety as a stage for survey free films and arranvidegement online has advanced in view of its HD content quality and absence of advertisements. A few shoppers have revealed being one of the most grounded video amusement administrations available on the web, however, utilizing it accompanies high dangers. These are significant punishments upwards of $100 K in certain nations for using administrations, for example, Soap2Today just as the chance of serving jail time.

Is SOAP2DAY 2020-21 Legal?

No, SOAP2DAY is certifiably not a genuine stage for streaming movies and anybody discovered utilizing it to download or transfer material might be intensely arraigned by unfamiliar governments. OK quit using unapproved sites, for example, SOAP2DAY beyond what many would consider possible, is it a high danger to see a film right? Rather, evaluate Amazon Prime Video for nothing for 30 days (that is right $ 0 USD and you can drop whenever).

The unlawful site regularly changes its area and wrongfully spills motion pictures, web arrangement. Numerous films are falling under these theft sites.

What are the Movies illegally Leaked by SOAP2DAY 2020-21?

The SOAP2DAY frequently unlawfully spills films on its site. The SOAP2DAY has a rundown of motion pictures, web arrangement on its site. This site has numerous classifications and unlawful holes discharge films in different dialects as well. The rundown of motion pictures unlawfully spilled by SOAP2DAY is recorded beneath.

  • Love Aaj Kal
  • Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone

Is SOAP2DAY 2020-21 Safe?

Almost the entire way, really, SOAP2DATY is pretty allowed to utilize (not with regards to the law) as long as you don’t duplicate something and utilize a VPN to explore the site.

You ought to trust SOAP2DAY, at that point? You can’t confide in SOAP2DAY truly, and therefore, I profoundly propose that you don’t visit the web.

How does Soap2day 2020-21 Illegal work?

Soap2day is a deluge site, which transfers the entirety of its films as pilfered content. Various individuals from unidentified spots direct site administration. Clients may look over film gatherings and import their #1 motion pictures as effectively as they need. So as to stream motion pictures from the Soap2day unlawful site, the client will initially get to the web by entering the particular space name. Furthermore, after this, the client is allowed to download their number one motion pictures. At the point when the site gets to click on advertisements and different connections, Google AdSense furnishes distributors with a way to bring in cash from their online substance.

What Language movies will be available on Soap2day 2020-21?

Soap2day is an illicit site which gives free film download admittance to its clients. It spills up the new movies inside long stretches of distributing them. However, it’s had some expertise in Tamil and Indian named film. It has a huge exhibit of Tamil movies, web arrangement, plays, and Tamil named films. Like other theft sites, the site works popup notices for Soap2day in and these ads are the key wellspring of income for them.

The strength of this unlawful site is it gives a wide range of films, for example, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and so forth The named films are additionally present on the site for simple downloading. All films present in this unlawful site are in the downloadable form.i.e, in HD designs. All TV shows and narratives are likewise accessible on the Soap2day for streaming and downloading measures.

What are the Latest Movies Leaked by the Soap2day 2020-21 website?

Soap2day has as of late released a few Tamil films upon the arrival of its dramatic appearance. The site has illicitly released a few blockbuster films like Baahubali 2, Robot 2, Bharat, Kabir Singh, and some more. There is not really any film that Soap2day has not spilled throughout the year. Referencing all the films spilled by Soap2day is outlandish, we will discuss the most famous motion pictures spilled by the unlawful site. View the most recent motion pictures wrongfully spilled by Soap2day.

Despite the fact that I prompt against utilizing the site, we realize that a significant number of you will keep on doing as such, and therefore, here are the absolute most mainstream films and TV shows you can discover on SOAP2DAY:

  • American Horror Story
  • Brooklyn 99
  • Charlie’s Angels
  • Descendants
  • Frozen
  • Gossip Girl
  • Home Alone
  • Instant Family
  • Jumanji The Next Level
  • K-12
  • Legacies
  • Mean Girls
  • Now You See Me
  • Orange Is The New Black
  • Rick and Morty

What are the categories of movies available on Soap2day 2020-21?

Soap2day has parted the site into numerous classifications to make it promptly accessible to all clients. This isn’t on the grounds that there is a set number of films qualified. This unlawful Soap2day site has arranged them into various sorts so as to make the movies promptly accessible to guests. You will find the video quicker there and have a more noteworthy opportunity to locate the ideal picture. Coming up next are the various classes you see on the illicit site of Soap2day

  • Horror
  • Drama
  • Romance
  • Action
  • Sci-fi
  • War
  • Thriller
  • Sports
  • Mystery
  • Tragedy
  • Mythology
  • Comedy
  • Children
  • Web series
  • TV series

What kind of movie qualities available on Soap2day?

Soap2day has a colossal choice of movies like Tamil and Tamil named films. On this illicit site, you can see the majority of the Hollywood, Bollywood motion pictures for nothing. The stage furnishes a huge determination of films with the differing video quality. The streaming sort accessible on Soap2day to watch or download motion pictures is recorded underneath. Soap2day additionally gives HD quality films on its sites. A large portion of the clients regularly watch or download motion pictures in HD quality. Contemplating its clients, Soap2day illicit site has a specific streaming quality for all films. Various kinds of motion pictures can be viewed from the accompanying streaming quality on the illicit site Soap2day.

  • HD movie download
  • Full Movie HD
  • Full movie download 720p
  • Full movie download 480p HD

What are the different links available for Soap2day Illegal website?

Notwithstanding Bollywood, this sort of unlawful site has a wide choice of Hollywood films as well. Through this unlawful site, you can download films complimentary. The danger of infections from sites like this is in any case higher on your PC. However, you need not do that. You can undoubtedly get a Pirated Movie complimentary through the Soap2day site and even watch Pirated Movie online for nothing.

  • Soap2day com
  • Soap2day la
  • Soap2day net
  • Soap2day ai
  • Soap2day ac

What are the similar websites to Soap2day?

Soap2day is one of the best illicit sites for downloading free films. There are a few different sites that you may discover helpful for downloading the films. Just a few sites convey the current hits on a sharp site. So here’s a determination of the top substitute sites that could fit Soap2day expectation.

Why Soap2day illegal website is so popular?

There are numerous illicit sites on the web that offer the client the benefit of observing free downloaded films or survey new motion pictures. Soap2day has risen as an acclaimed unlawful site. The majority of them can’t help thinking about what’s the explanation that individuals pick Soap2day than other unlawful sites? We should take a look at the accompanying perspectives to perceive any reason why Soap2day illicit site is so well known.

Soap2day has a Global Alexa Rank of 62,696 in worldwide web traffic and communication, as per Alexa.com, a site that offers information on sites across different classifications. This rank depends on Alexa.com ‘s traffic information gathered from an immense scope of site clients around the world.

Soap2day ‘s impact has reduced in the previous 90 days, as per Alexa.com, as the Global Alexa Rating has diminished from 789,568 to 62,696. Indeed, Alexa.com shows that 6.9 destinations per individual of this stage were perused consistently, with the normal time spent on the web being 7:38 minutes.

How to access Soap2day Illegal Website?

As effectively expressed, Soap2day is an unlawful site, and visiting destinations like this is wrongdoing in India. Nonetheless, in the event that you actually need to watch and download films online from Soap2day, you have to get a VPN before you visit the site. A VPN will permit you to securely download the substance from the site without uncovering your IP address. Follow the underneath offered steps to get to the unlawful site Soap2day.

  • First of all, you must have a VPN downloaded on your mobile to bypass your restriction.
  • After installing the VPN app, open VPN Software, and select an IP address of a country where Soap2day com is not banned.
  • Once you change the IP address, you can visit Soap2day com. There you have thousands of movies and TV shows for free download.

What are the movie file sizes available on the Soap2day Illegal Website?

Distinctive web rates will permit you to get to different estimations of the motion pictures in case you’re downloading on the versatile web or PC. The accessible document measures that clients can select from the Soap2day Illegal Website are recorded underneath.

  • 300MB dimension videos and movies
  • 600MB dimension videos and movies
  • 2GB dimension videos and movies
  • 4GB dimension videos and movies

What are the methods of unblocking the Soap2day Illegal Website using the Proxy site?

The illicit site Soap2day can be gotten to through the Proxy site and unblocked. A few intermediaries are open, and similarly as private. Representatives will let you associate with numerous IP tends to on the web, subsequently concealing your exceptional IP address. These intermediaries normally veil their interesting character, which is their special personality, and deliveries it online with numerous IP addresses. Your online-world character is additionally ensured.

How to download movies from Soap2day using a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technique for interfacing the private and public organizations to include security and protection. Much like the WiFi Hotspots and the Internet, for example. VPNs is generally used to secure private information. Presently how about we perceive how to download films from Soap2day utilizing a VPN through a cell phone.

Step 1: First go to the play store and download the Vpn app

Step 2: Next download flud torrent

Step 3: Then select the country by going to the settings area

Step 4: Open any browser and visit the website

Step 5: Get the torrent or you can also click on the magnet link

Step 6:  Finally save the movie to the preferred location

Can I watch Web series for free on Soap2day?

Soap2day is a downpour site that is utilized by clients to watch and download films free. The motion pictures are typically new films from Bollywood, Hollywood, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Punjabi that get released each week when the film is distributed on their site. Soap2day unlawful site additionally gives a segment to film downloads explicitly for cell phones in high caliber. This unlawful site additionally has sub-areas for Tamil named motion pictures and shows. Aside from Tamil motion pictures, clients can likewise stream web arrangement and watch online for nothing on Soap2day. A portion of the web arrangement accessible on the Soap2day is recorded beneath.

  • The Family Man
  • Paatal Lok

Is it Illegal to watch or download movies, web-series, TV Serials, OTT Movies, OTT web-series online from Soap2Day?

Soap2Day is a site distributing pilfered films, TV serials, web-arrangement, OTT unique web arrangement, OTT unique motion pictures. Since it is pilfered content, the law forbids an individual from visiting such sites. Every nation has its own control instrument to evade such sites from stacking in their nations. On the off chance that we visit such sites through illicit methods, at that point it is viewed as an offense. Every nation has its own laws and disciplines for people watching copyrighted work on pilfered locales. In many nations, a hefty fine is forced for clients watching copyrighted substance from the pilfered site. Regardless of the weighty fine, some nation has laws that can even capture an individual for watching illicit/precluded content

Disclaimer:

GetFreshNews.com doesn’t promote piracy and is strictly against online piracy. We understand and fully comply with the copyright acts/clauses and ensure we take all steps to comply with the Act. Through our pages, We intend to inform our users about piracy and strongly encourage our users to avoid such platforms/websites. As a firm, we strongly support copyright acts. We advise our users to be very vigilant and avoid visiting such websites

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United States | IAM

Mish Boyka

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Q: How can patent owners best enforce their rights in your jurisdiction?

United States patents are litigated, often simultaneously, in multiple venues, including in federal district courts, before the International Trade Commission (ITC) and at the PTAB. Successful enforcement of patents requires extensive preparation to navigate these multiple venues, and to prevent patent infringers from taking pre-emptive action at the PTAB to attack patent rights or in the district courts to obtain a venue in perceived infringer-friendly jurisdictions. In some instances, it may be desirable for a patentee to return to the patent office for re-examination or supplemental examination to affirm the validity of patents over prior art before filing a lawsuit. For high-stakes disputes involving technologies that are imported into the United States, perhaps the strongest available remedy is a fast-track action at the ITC to block the importation of infringing products.

Q: Are mediation and arbitration realistic alternatives to litigation?

Yes. A strong bench of experienced former patent judges and litigators are available to serve as arbitrators or mediators. Mediation is almost always required during district court litigation.

Q: Who hears patent cases – for example, individual judges, a panel of judges, a mix of judges and technical experts, judges and juries?

This depends on the venue and the issue. At the PTAB, which only decides challenges to patent validity, all issues are heard by three-judge panels of administrative patent judges. These are typically experienced former private practitioners or patent examiners with a background in the relevant technology and in patent law. Cases at the ITC are handled by administrative law judges with the assistance of staff attorneys who play a quasi-advocate role. The administrative law judges and staff attorneys are not patent specialists like administrative patent judges. They do, however, handle many high-stakes patent disputes and are typically well versed in patent law and technology. District court litigation is conducted by generalist federal judges, and is the only venue where juries make decisions in patent cases. Decision making in the district courts is split between judges and juries, with judges deciding issues of law such as claim construction, juries deciding issues of fact such as infringement and damages, and many issues such as invalidity that are a mix of fact and law. Typically, the parties are assisted by professional, testifying technical and damages experts. Occasionally, the district court judges will engage a technical adviser to assist in particularly difficult technical issues.

Q: What level of expertise can litigants expect from courts?

PTAB and ITC judges have a high degree of sophistication when it comes to patent law and technology. Most district court judges have only a small percentage of their dockets dedicated to patent cases and, as such, are relatively inexperienced with patent law and have minimal training in science and technology. A limited number of jurisdictions handle most district court patent cases and are more predictable than other jurisdictions. Judges in these jurisdictions utilise local patent rules and are experienced with certain technology areas.

Q: Are validity and infringement dealt with together in proceedings?

PTAB proceedings decide validity only and can be filed with or without a related infringement action. District court litigations almost always decide both validity and infringement, but cases are often stayed while the PTAB decides validity. ITC actions decide both validity and infringement and are not stayed even if a parallel PTAB action is filed to challenge the patents at issue – although ITC remedies can be collaterally attacked in view of successful PTAB challenges.

Q: Who may represent parties engaged in a dispute?

An attorney for a district court case must be admitted in the federal district court where the case is being heard, which typically requires membership in the local state bar. The PTAB requires attorneys appearing before it to be admitted to the USPTO, which in turn requires a suitable science or technology degree and to have passed a patent bar exam. Attorneys who are not admitted in a district court or to the USPTO may appear pro hac vice. ITC admission is available to qualified US attorneys.

Q: To what extent is forum selection possible in your jurisdiction?

Within the federal district court system, lawsuits can be filed in any district court venue where the accused infringer is either incorporated or has a ‘regular and established place of business’. This latter phrase is the subject of many disputes but appears to require some employees and a bricks-and-mortar presence. Even if the venue is proper, the accused infringer may still seek to move the case to another jurisdiction based on factors such as the location of witnesses and other related cases. Venue is often hotly disputed, because some venues are considered favourable to patent owners, while others are considered favourable to accused infringers. Accused infringers often try to secure their favoured venue by filing declaratory judgment actions. It is commonplace for accused infringers to file a validity challenge in the PTAB. Although invalidation rates have recently seen a slight drop, the PTAB is still considered more welcoming of invalidity arguments than district courts. Timing is often key to whether a PTAB challenge will be effective or will even be heard. Some district courts will not stay their cases if a PTAB challenge does not shortly follow an accusation of infringement, and the PTAB may also decline to hear cases that are running well behind parallel infringement proceedings. There are also relatively strict requirements to file PTAB cases within a year after a lawsuit against an accused infringer.

Because ITC proceedings are procedurally intensive and operate on a fast track, district court cases are stayed while the ITC case is resolved. Although PTAB cases are not typically stayed, due to the similar time to decision of ITC cases and PTAB cases, and the fact that an ITC accusation of infringement typically precedes a PTAB challenge to validity, an ITC complainant (ie, the patent owner) can often obtain a favourable ITC decision prior to resolution of the accused infringer’s PTAB validity challenge.

Q: To what extent is pre-trial discovery permitted?

Pre-trial discovery is freely allowed on relevant subjects and is generally quite burdensome in both district court and ITC proceedings. The strict timetables of ITC cases significantly increase the net discovery burden in the ITC. Discovery rules require disclosure of even highly confidential information, although critical technical data such as schematics, source code and clinical data are often available only in protected environments. Both the district courts and the ITC employ protective orders to allow for free exchange of information between the attorneys acting for the litigants.

Discovery in the PTAB is limited, with document discovery allowed only under special circumstances.

Q: To what extent is evidence written and oral at proceedings?

District court and ITC cases typically conduct full trials with live witnesses, often taking a week or more. There are also extensive opportunities for pre-trial decisions at summary judgment (district court) or summary determination (ITC), typically based on documents uncovered during discovery and deposition testimony.

PTAB cases are decided almost entirely on the papers. Witnesses appear only on rare occasions, and the PTAB ‘trial’ is a brief oral argument by the attorneys.

Q: What role, if any, can expert witnesses play?

Expert witnesses are critical to patent cases on all issues of fact, such as infringement, invalidity, and damages. Expert witness fees are typically a substantial factor in the expense of patent litigation.

Q: Is the doctrine of equivalents applied by courts in your jurisdiction and, if so, what form does it take?

While available, the doctrine of equivalents is applied sparingly due to limiting doctrines such as prosecution history estoppel.

Q: Are there problems in enforcing certain types of patent relating to, for example, biotechnology, business methods or software?

Under the Mayo/Alice framework, many issued patents are subject to challenge as not being directed to ‘patentable subject matter’. Issues often arise for patents that automate business processes, software patents and medical diagnostic patents. The outcomes of patentable subject-matter challenges are often unpredictable, and some venues tend to be more pro-patent or anti-patent when applying this framework.

Q: To what extent are courts obliged to consider previous cases that have covered issues similar to those pertaining to a dispute?

In general, courts and other tribunals are required to apply only rulings from previous cases that were between the same parties and involve the same issues as the current proceeding. Nonetheless, prior rulings are often persuasive even if not binding on a party.

Q: To what extent are courts willing to consider the way in which the same or similar cases have been dealt with in other jurisdictions? Are decisions from some jurisdictions more persuasive than those from others?

The various types of United States patent tribunal – district courts, the ITC and the PTAB – are not bound by rulings from other these bodies unless affirmed on appeal. Rulings from foreign jurisdictions typically have little persuasive value unless the issues under consideration are virtually identical, such as invalidity of identical claims in view of the same prior art.

Q: What realistic options are available to defendants seeking to delay a case? How might a plaintiff counter these?

Defendants will typically file a declaratory judgment action for non-infringement in a perceived favourable district court venue and then promptly file a challenge to the patents in the PTAB. This often affords a stay of any infringement litigation while the PTAB adjudicates invalidity over approximately 18 months. Other options include other challenges at the USPTO, such as petitions for ex parte re-examination.

Q: Under what circumstances, if any, will a court consider granting a preliminary injunction? How often does this happen?

Preliminary injunctions are relatively rare because the patentee must not only show a strong likelihood of success on the merits, but also that the infringement cannot be remedied by money damages. A preliminary injunction outside of a direct competitor environment is extraordinarily rare.

Q: What is the realistic timescale to get a decision at first instance from the initiation of proceedings?

The ITC and PTAB operate on an approximately 18-month timetable to reach a decision at the first instance, while district courts range from 18 to 36 months.

Q: How much should a litigant budget for in order to take a case through to a decision at first instance?

A litigant should budget as follows:

  • for each patent at the PTAB – $250,000 to $750,000;
  • for a ‘typical’ district court litigation – $2.5 million to $5 million; and
  • for a ‘typical’ ITC case – $3.5 million to $7.5 million.

Q: To what extent are the winning party’s costs recoverable from the losing party?

While costs are freely granted to the prevailing party, these only cover relatively small ministerial amounts. Attorney and expert fees are the main cost of litigation and are granted only in egregious cases involving particularly weak claims or defences, or improper litigation conduct.

Q: What remedies are available to a successful plaintiff?

In the ITC, the only remedy is an exclusion order prohibiting the importation of certain products (a limited exclusion order) or classes of products (a general exclusion order) into the United States. This remedy is almost always granted to a successful patent owner, although enforcement at Customs can be complicated.

In the PTAB, a successful patent owner maintains its patents.

Damages are awarded in district courts for up to six years of past infringement (from the date that the complaint was filed), provided that the infringer was on notice of the patent. Damages can be enhanced up to three times of the underlying damages award if the infringement is wilful – with knowledge or a wanton disregard of the infringement. District courts are permitted to grant permanent injunctions, but these are difficult to obtain under the governing eBay standard.

Q: How are damages awards calculated?

Damages are calculated under a ‘reasonable royalty’ or a ‘lost profits’ framework. Lost profits may provide a larger recovery, but this methodology is used only if the patentee can show that it could have made those profits but for the infringement. A reasonable royalty looks at what sort of payment the parties would have come to under a multi-factor ‘hypothetical negotiation’ framework at the date of the start of infringement.

Q: Under what circumstances will courts grant permanent injunctions?

Under the US Supreme Court’s eBay decision, permanent injunctions are not usually available for patent infringement. That is, although a patent is supposed to provide a right to exclude others from practising the invention, the remedy of exclusion is available only under rare circumstances, particularly in cases involving multi-component electrical or mechanical products or software. The most difficult hurdle to overcome is the requirement that money damages are inadequate.

Q: Does the losing party at first instance have an automatic right of appeal?

Whether at the PTAB, ITC or in district courts, the losing party has a right to appeal a final decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which is the sole appellate court for issues involving patents.

Q: How long does it typically take for the appellate decision to be handed down?

For the appellate decision to be handed down, it typically takes between 12 and 18 months from filing.

Q: Is it possible to take cases beyond the second instance?

The United States Supreme Court is the only court that can review decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Review is discretionary by writ of certiorari and is granted on only one or two patent cases a year.

Q: To what extent do the courts in your jurisdiction have a reputation for being pro-patentee?

The PTAB had a reputation as being anti-patentee, but that reputation has become less true over the past couple of years.

The ITC is considered an even-handed tribunal, although the strict timetable is considered burdensome to accused infringers.

District courts have varying reputations, with the Eastern and Western Districts of Texas considered pro-patentee, the Northern District of California considered pro-infringer, and the Districts of Delaware, New Jersey and Massachusetts, the Central District of California, the Southern District of New York and the Northern District of Illinois considered knowledgeable of patent cases and neither pro-patentee or pro-infringer.

Q: Are there other fora outside the court system in which it is possible to assert patents in your jurisdiction? If so, under what circumstances might it be appropriate to use them?

The ITC is the primary alternative forum for patent infringement litigation.

Q: Are there any other issues relating to the enforcement system in your country that you would like to raise?

The United States does not have the same kind of requirements that Europe does around SEPs. There are limitations around remedies associated with SEPs in the United States, but the process around pre-suit negotiation is different from that in Europe.

The covid-19 pandemic has generally delayed litigation by a few months. Courts and litigants have begun to adjust to remote depositions, hearings and even trials. Difficult issues have arisen relating to the review of technical documents.

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