In 1937 the Gloversville-Johnstown Glovers of the Canadian-American League featured an 18 year old first baseman by the name of Bill Enos. While he was one of the youngest to ever suit up for the Glovers, he had been previously signed to a professional contract two years earlier at the age of 16. Ingenuity got him noticed, and perseverance led to a career in professional baseball that would last for parts of eight decades.
William (Bill) Donovan Enos was born in Cohasset Massachusetts on August 5, 1920, to Abraham S. and Helena F. Enos. Abraham had played on local semi-professional teams in the area with Everett Gammons, uncle of renowned sportswriter and media personality Peter Gammons. The couple had two children, which included Bill and his younger sister Anne. Bill acquired a love for the game from his Father and gained the reputation as being one of the better ball players in New England by the time he was a teenager.
His fondness for the game was further inspired in 1933 when long-time Washington Senator first baseman Joe Judge was in Cohasset and 12 year old Enos was invited to meet him. Judge had recently been traded to the Boston Red Sox and was impressed by the young player’s attitude during their meeting. Knowing Enos was a left-handed first baseman, Judge gave him the first baseman glove that he had used for most of his career with the Senators from 1915-1932, including while playing in the 1924 World Series. While the padding in the glove was worn out, it would be the glove that Enos would use for many years to come.
As a teenager, Enos spent his summers playing for local semi-pro and industrial league teams, where he became a fan favorite on the South Shore area of Massachusetts. And like most young boys, he dreamed of one day playing professionally, if only he could be seen by a professional organization. In 1935, at the age of 14, Enos snuck into a tryout at Braves Field, home of the National Leagues Boston Braves. He waited by a corner near the stadium with his Joe Judge glove in hand, and when a group of young prospects were about to enter the park, he melded in with them like he was also invited.
Upon entering the stadium, Enos was given a uniform and took the field to work out. It was not until the fourth day of taking infield and batting practice, that it was discovered that Enos was not an invited prospect and was dismissed. However, he had held his own with the other prospects for the duration of his time there, entering his name into the minds of the Boston organizations management.
In 1936, at the age of 15, Enos transferred from Cohasset High School to the Thayer Academy, a private college preparatory day school in Braintree Massachusetts and played first base for their baseball team. That same year, he was formally invited for another round of tryouts at Braves Field, now home of the Boston Bees (formerly the Boston Braves) of the National League.
The Bees had an initiative to look for prospects from the Northeast, and Enos had caught their attention the summer before when he snuck into their tryouts. After a strong season for Thayer Academy in which he had no errors in the field, the Boston club decided to take a closer look at him. He spent the entire summer going through their workouts when the Bees were home. After watching him all summer they expressed an interest in signing him to a contract after he graduated from high school in two years. In the evenings, he played for the semi-professional Cohasset Blue Blades.
In October of 1936, the Sporting News publication announced that they were holding a subscription selling contest. The top 10 sellers in the United States and Canada would earn an all-expenses paid trip to participate in the prestigious Ray L. Doan Baseball School in Hot Springs, Arkansas in February of 1937. The baseball school operated in the 1930’s and featured many legendary baseball players as instructors, including Hall of Famers Babe Ruth, Dizzy Dean, Paul Dean, Bob Feller Red Faber, Burleigh Grimes, Rogers Hornsby, George Sisler, Tris Speak and Cy Young.
Through 6 week sessions, they trained and developed amateur players, getting dozens of them signed to professional contracts each year. Enos saw this as another opportunity to be seen by professional organizations and began selling subscriptions. He was not old enough to have his driver’s license, so from October 1936 through February 1937, he walked, often-times in snow, through the Massachusetts towns of Hingham, Hull, Scituate and Cohasset selling subscriptions to the Sporting News. When the contest results were tallied, Enos had sold 72 subscriptions to place second in the contest and earned a trip to the prestigious baseball school.
He was given a leave of absence by the Thayer Academy and at the age of 16, he left by train out of South Station in Boston to travel to Arkansas for the six-week school.
Enos excelled at the school, batting over .450 and used his Joe Judge glove to perform faultless fielding. This earned him a spot on the all-star team and being chosen as one of the best 18 rookies out of the 600 in attendance. Members of the St. Louis Cardinals were instructors at Doan School and were impressed by Enos, and labeled him as “best of the lot.”
Frankie Frisch, manager of the St. Louis Cardinals, saw the scouting reports from his players and offered Enos a professional contract, even though he was only 16. The Enos family was advised not to sign the contract, but to instead have Bill continue his schooling. When the Doan School finished, Enos returned to Cohasset in time for Thayer’s first game in April.
In early May, the St. Louis Cardinals (famed ‘Gas House Gang’) were in Boston for a two game series with the Boston Bees. Enos received a telegram from Cardinals executive Branch Rickey instructing him to report to Braves Field for a workout and to take batting practice with the team. Later that month, just two hours after completing his sophomore season at Thayer, his parents conceded and allowed the 16 year old to sign with the Cardinals.
Enos was informed that he would be initially sent to the Rochester Red Wings, the Cardinals AA affiliate in the International League to be their first baseman. Instead, he received a telegram from Cardinals Manager Frankie Frisch ordering him to report to the Polo Grounds in New York City to meet the team when they faced the New York Giants. Expecting to merely work out with the big league club, he learned that he was there to possibly fill in at first base. Frisch told him that both his regular first baseman Johnny Mize and back up Dick Siebert were injured and he might need him to play. However, Mize ultimately suited up and Enos instead had a front row seat in the Cardinals dugout as future Hall of Fame pitchers Dizzy Dean and Carl Hubbell faced off. He would spend the next few weeks traveling with the Cardinals during their east coast trip and was then released by the organization.
Unsure of why they did not send him to play for Rochester, he suited up to play for the Orleans Cardinals (Orleans, MA) of the Cape Code League, where he batted .360 and did not make a single error at first base. When he was released to make room on the roster for the player he was filling in for, he returned to semi-professional baseball with Frisoli of the Suburban Twilight League in Massachusetts.
Going into the 1938 baseball season, Enos enrolled in the New York Giants Baseball School in Baton Rouge Louisiana. The school was conducted by Giants manager Bill Terry and charged 97 aspiring players $25 tuition for four weeks of training for the month of February. It was also around this time that it became evident why the Cardinals had released him the previous summer.
For several months, Major League Baseball had been investigating the Cardinals and their farm system practices. In March of 1938, Major League Baseball Commissioner Kennesaw Mountain Landis ruled that the St. Louis Cardinals were in violation of the working agreements with their minor league clubs. This released 74 St. Louis Cardinal minor leaguers from contract, making them free agents.
After returning from spring training at the Giants Camp, Enos split the 1938 season playing for the Braintree White Sox and the Weymouth Sons of Italy teams in the semi-professional South Shore League of Massachusetts.
In February 1939, Enos returned to the Doan Baseball School. The school had relocated to Jackson Mississippi, and future Hall of Famers Babe Ruth and Burleigh Grimes were now instructors. Once again, Enos excelled at the school and received three different professional contract offers. He was convinced by Grimes, who was the Brooklyn Dodgers manager at the time, to sign with the Brooklyn organization. He then reported to the Dodgers spring training camp in Lake Wales Florida, and worked out with the Montreal Royals.
When spring training camp broke, he was assigned to the Gloversville-Johnstown Glovers (Gloversville, NY) of the Class C Canadian-American League, who were a Brooklyn Dodgers affiliate.
At just age 18, he won the first baseman job with the Glovers during their pre-season workouts at the Riceville Diamond in Mayfield. He would finally suit up for his first official professional game on May 11, 1939 against the Cornwall Maple Leafs. In front of 1,000 fans at Berkshire/Glovers Park, he got his first professional hit and showed the local fans how well he could field. He appeared in 106 games that season, with 13 doubles, three home runs and a .982 fielding percentage.
He routinely turned poor throws into outs with great stretches and scoops of balls thrown to him out of the dirt. His defense helped the team win many games and earned him the nickname of “the stretch kid.” He was a fan favorite in Gloversville and was voted by the fans as the hardest working first baseman in the league, and given a gift of two leather coats. He was also voted as the most popular player on the team and was awarded the ‘Kingsbury Cup’ that was presented to him on the last day of the season. His biggest thrill of the season came on May 18, 1939 while playing in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, England’s King George VI and Queen Elizabeth attended the Glovers game against the Ottawa Senators that day.
They were conducting a Royal Tour of Canada by train, marking the first time a reigning Monarch had stepped foot in Canada. They also spent four days in the United States, where they met with President Theodore Roosevelt. There were 10,000 attendees in the stands and another 5,000 standing throughout the park that day. Players from both teams stood on the field as the Royal Couple rode around waving to the fans.
After a successful 1939 campaign, Enos was offered a contract to return to Gloversville for the 1940 season. However, it was for the same salary and Enos felt he deserved a raise. He initially held out by not sending the contract back to the team. Without a raise, he arrived in Gloversville and made the 1940 team. However, he never played and was released by the organization in May. He then played a few games for the local semi-professional team that played at the Riceville Diamond called the Mayfield Dutchmen.
In early June, Enos and Gloversville residents Charles Camara, Roy Hallenbeck and Al Filmer left the Dutchmen to join the Cornwall Kilties (Cornwall, Ontario, Canada) of the semi-professional Northern League. The team experienced financial troubles and folded a few weeks later. Enos then joined the Watertown Collegians, another Upstate New York semi-professional team, to take over for their injured first baseman. They often played Negro League teams, including the Mohawk Giants and the Baltimore Elites, who touted future Hall of Famer Roy Campanella as their catcher.
In January 1941, Enos received a telegram from Ray Doan inviting him to serve as an instructor at his baseball school, which had then moved to Palatka Florida. Knowing this would once again put him in front of many scouts from big league organizations’, he accepted the offer and joined his childhood idol Babe Ruth on the staff. This was such a thrill for the entire Enos family that his father came to Florida for the duration of the school so he could meet Ruth.
As Enos worked alongside of all the aspiring players, Babe Ruth took notice of his skills and was extremely impressed. In an interview with Bob Considine in the March 11, 1941 edition of the Daily Mirror, Ruth beamed when talking about Enos and stated “he handles himself like Camilli (Dolph Camilli-Brooklyn Dodgers MVP first baseman) and he will someday be up there (in the Major Leagues).”
While there as an instructor, he was also competing and made the schools all-star team again. This led to him signing a contract with the St. Louis Browns. He then spent the 1941 season with the Lafayette White Sox (Lafayette, LA) of the Class D Evangeline League and the Federalsburg A’s (Federalsburg, MD) of the Class D Eastern Shore League.
In 1942, Enos enlisted in the United States Navy. From 1942 through 1946 he was a Specialist, serving as a physical education instructor and executed boxer Gene Tunney’s physical fitness program for the naval infantry. He was initially stationed at the Newport Naval Training Base where he was a bunk mate of Artie Shaw. Shaw was a famous American clarinetist, composer, band leader and author. Enos also served as the player/manager on the Navy All-Star Baseball team.
In 1945 he was re-stationed to Tinian Island in the Northern Marianas in the Pacific Ocean. There he continued to be a physical education instructor and traveled with the Navy All-Star team to play on several Japanese islands to entertain the United States military troops.
Enos received an honorable discharge at the end of the war and returned to the United States in early 1946. He continued to play in St. Louis Browns organization from 1946 through 1949, in their Class C, B and A leagues. Around this time, he expressed an interest of one day being a manager. The Browns gave him his first chance at managing in 1949 when he split time as player/manager for the Mayfield Clothiers (Mayfield, KY) of the Class D Kentucky-Illinois-Tennessee League. He continued as a player/manager for the next three seasons for St. Louis Browns affiliates in the Class D Georgia State League, Kansas-Oklahoma-Missouri League and the Sooner State League.
Beginning in 1951, in addition to both playing and managing for the Pittsburg Browns (Pittsburg, Kansas) of the Kansas-Oklahoma-Missouri League, Enos also began working out of the Browns front office, inadvertently setting up the next phase of his career after his playing days were over. His new role involved looking over top prospects and assisting with running the organizations minor league spring training camp.
After the 1952 season as a player/manager for the Ada Herefords (Ada, Oklahoma) of the Class D Sooner State League, Enos became a professional scout with the Browns organization working out of their St. Louis, Missouri office. Entering the 1953 season, Enos served as their minor league training camp director of baseball and as a “scouting cross checker.”
In 1954, the St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore, becoming the Baltimore Orioles and Enos was promoted to National Scout and director of baseball, minor league training camp.
At this time, he was 33, and known as the organization’s troubleshooter. Although his primary job was to scout, he was also often called upon to fill in as manager, equipment manager and groundskeeper. He was also tasked with setting up the organizations 1954 minor league camp which ran from March to April in Thomasville, Georgia. This saw him responsible for the organizations 350 prospects that needed to be housed, fed, clothed, entertained and trained.
After running the players through drills each day, Enos and the coaching staff then analyzed each prospects performance during the evenings. This ultimately led to the players being placed at the proper minor league levels for the upcoming season. Once the season started, Enos traveled around to the Orioles minor league teams to analyze the development of their prospects.
During a visit to view the Orioles Class B Piedmont League York White Roses (York, Pennsylvania), Enos took notice of an 18 year old rookie named Brooks Robinson. At the time, Robinson was playing second base, and at the urging of Enos and his coaching staff, Robinson was moved to third base. Robinson would get a call up to the Major Leagues that fall, sparking off a Hall of Fame career that included 16 consecutive Gold Gloves at third base from 1960 through 1975. In addition, Enos also scouted high school and college prospects throughout the spring and summer to make suggestions to the organization on potential new signings.
That off season, he married Grace H. Jones, a nurse from North Weymouth Massachusetts. They enjoyed 47 years of marriage that produced two daughters, Anne and Karyl.
After two seasons with the Orioles organization, he joined the Kansas City Athletics in 1956 where he would spend the next 10 years as a scout and their director of baseball, minor league training camp. He oversaw four full-time scouts and 70 part-time commissioned scouts throughout New England, New York and Eastern Canada. He then moved on to be the New England scout for the Oakland Athletics (1968), Seattle Pilots (1969-1970) and Milwaukee Brewers (1971-1973).
In 1974, Enos joined his beloved hometown Boston Red Sox as their New England scout. He was recruited by Haywood Sullivan, whom he had worked with in the Kansas City organization and was in charge of the Red Sox Amateur scouting.
As a scout, Enos logged tens of thousands of miles each year across New England and Eastern Canada attending high school and college games to analyze players. With thousands of high schools and hundreds of colleges in his territory, his car was always stocked with hundreds of game schedules.
One of his tricks to learn about players was to visit the local barber shop in the town where he was scouting a prospect. While there, the conversation often turned to baseball and he used those conversations to learn about the player’s post high school intentions (did he have college scholarship offers), what sort of a person he was and about his family. The year started in the fall with scouting college programs and then both college and high school games in the spring. Before each game he was about to watch, he walked the infield and charted how accurate the dimensions were, so he could properly gauge how a play or throw on that field would compare to one at Fenway Park. He kept elaborate rating information on each player he scouted and based all of his assessments on a players potential, and what he thought he had the capability of doing in the coming years. He kept two sets of rating cards. One set broke-down “present skills”, and the other projected “future skills.” Each player would end up with a score of 1-5, with 5 marking a potential Major Leaguer.
Spring was the busiest time for Enos as he had to compile final reports on players eligible for the June Major League Baseball Amateur Draft. When the high school and college tournaments started, he would sometimes see five games in three different states in the same day. After the draft concluded, and his signees were off to hone their skills in the minor leagues, Enos would be back out scouting high school summer league games and the Cape Cod League, which showcased college players.
Throughout the years, Enos signed dozens of players to minor league contracts. Seventeen of those players made it to the major leagues, combining for over 100 seasons of playing service. This included future All-Stars, and World Series Champion John Tudor, who was with the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1988. With the advent of the Major League Baseball Scouting Bureau in the 1970’s, organizations now subscribe to a service that provides the same homogenized reports on all players eligible for the amateur draft each June. Because of this, a scout’s true talent can be measured by his free agent signings of players who slipped through the cracks of the Major League Draft.
Enos was noted for finding such unsigned and undrafted talent who had been overlooked. The most notable overlooked player that Enos found and convinced the Red Sox to sign was Rich Gedman. As a pitcher and first baseman in high school, Gedman was overlooked in the June 1977 Major League Baseball Amateur Draft.
According to Gedman, “I was undrafted out of high school and was playing American Legion ball that summer. There was scuttlebutt that there were scouts from the Philadelphia Phillies and Boston Red Sox at the games watching me, but they could not legally talk to me until the season was over. The morning after the season ended, Bill Enos was at my parent’s home at 8 a.m. and did not leave until after it was dark. I was a pitcher and first baseman in high school and Bill wanted to see me catch. He looked at my body shape and saw something that no one else saw. He explained the catching position and the attributes I had that gave me the most potential. He recommended that I try catching as my fastest way to the big leagues. Nobody else was going to draft me, as 660 others got picked ahead of me in the draft.”
Gedman concurred with the concept and the Red Sox signed him to a minor league contract as a free agent. He was then sent to their instructional league to learn the catching position. Just two seasons later, he made it to the big leagues as the Red Sox catcher, a position he would hold for the next 11 seasons. Career highlights included leading the Red Sox to the World Series as their everyday catcher in 1986 and being the battery mate of Roger Clemons when he struck out a Major League single game record 20 batters in a nine-inning game. Gedman recorded 20 putouts during the game, setting the American League record for putouts by a catcher. He also recorded 16 more put outs the following game, establishing a new two-day record of 36 by a catcher.
Gedman fondly recalls the role of Enos on his career by stating “Bill Enos gave me an opportunity. If it were not for his eye, I would not have had the chance. He could see something that nobody else could. He saw something in me that I did not even see in myself. Nothing I say will do the man justice. I will always be appreciative of him for giving me a chance.”
Gedman enjoyed a 13-year career with the Red Sox, Houston Astros and St. Louis Cardinals. He was chosen to the American League All-Star team in 1985 and 1986, and has been nominated for induction into the Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame, set for 2021.
In 1982, Enos was named as the very first Major League Baseball liaison to the Cape Code League. It was a paid position, and he was responsible for helping improve the league. He wrote up reports on each organization and facility, and ensured everything that the scouts needed to effectively analyze prospects was furnished. Over 10 summers, he helped turn the league into the premier prospect showcase program for players to get drafted. When the summer season ended, he would then turn back to following fall college programs.
Winters saw him making appearances on the banquet circuit. This included speaking engagements at Little League, American Legion and semi-professional events. Not only did this allow him to receive extra compensation, it also helped him become known to future-prospects who he may one day need an edge with in order to sign. Upon joining the Red Sox organization in 1974, he also spent spring training in Arizona each year scouting Major League players of opposing teams in the Cactus League, to provide input on players for potential trades.
Enos retired as a full time scout in 1992. To honor him for his service, the Red Sox presented him the keys to a brand new Mercury Grand Marquis before a regular season game at Fenway Park. He stayed on with the team as a consultant, officially retiring from baseball in 2001 after 28 seasons with his favorite team since childhood.
Enos was recognized by the Boston chapter of the Baseball Writers’ Association of America when they presented him with the “Good Scout Award” in 1977. The group honored him again in 2001 when they presented him with the “Distinguished Service Award.” In 2001 he was inducted into the Inaugural Class of the Cape Cod League Hall of Fame. Having played just a few weeks in the prestigious league in 1937, he was inducted in honor of his role as the Major League Baseball liaison to the league and having helped turn it into the top amateur league in the country. Also inducted with Enos were former Cape Cod League players and Major League legends Thurman Munson, Frank Thomas, Maurice “Mo” Vaughn, Jeff Reardon and Mike Flanagan.
According to Dan Duquette, Boston Red Sox General Manager from 1994 to 2002, “Bill Enos was one of the great guys in baseball. When I started in professional baseball, I would read the scouting reports that he did on the New England guys and file them. I tracked the names I knew, and Enos was always right on about the players. From this, I learned how to scout. When I joined the Boston Red Sox in 1994, I had two objectives. The first was to sign Nomar Garciaparra and the second was to draft New England players to better appeal to our fan base. And because of his in-depth love and knowledge of the New England territory and its amateur talent pool, Enos was our secret weapon! During his induction into the Cape Cod League Hall of Fame, I got to tell the story about how I met him. I was at a Cape Cod League game and inadvertently sat in front of Enos and blocked his view. When I asked him if I should move, he replied ‘no need to move, I will just go by the sound of the ball on the bat and buy a paper in the morning…I’ve been scouting this game for a long time.’ It was like the scene from the Clint Eastwood movie ‘Trouble with the Curve’ in which a long-time scout (played by Eastwood) determined that a highly regarded prospect had a flaw in his swing based on the sound of the ball off the bat.”
Duquette goes on to give Enos credit for having a part in helping set up the Red Sox 2004 World Series Championship. He states, “in 1994, Enos was the high scout who most accurately accessed the talent of Red Sox draft pick Carl Pavano. Pavano was traded to the Montreal Expos in 1997 in exchange for pitcher Pedro Martinez. Martinez would prove to be a key factor in the Red Sox winning the World Championship in 2004. Bill was a terrific ambassador for baseball. He had the game in his blood and made a living doing what he loved.”
In retirement, Enos lived in his childhood home in Cohasset Massachusetts with his wife Grace, and he watched every single Red Sox game on television. In 2000, he moved to Scottsdale, Arizona to be near his daughters.
The Boston Red Sox honored him once again when they brought him back to Boston as their guest for Games 1 and 2 at both the 2004 and 2007 World Series.
According to his daughter Anne, “my Dad was thrilled to be invited back for the World Series games. I got to go as his guest and for the 2007 series we sat in General Manager Theo Epstein’s box with him. Seated in the box next to us was Commissioner Bud Selig, and it was fun to watch all of the notable celebrities that were in and out of both boxes during the game.”
Enos passed away in 2014 at the age of 94. Since the time he was a young boy, he always dreamed of one day playing professional baseball. Not only did he reach that goal, but he would live that dream for 78 years as a player, manager, scout and consultant. He was able to make a living doing what he loved, while also helping fulfill that same dream of playing professionally for dozens of other young men.
In honor of his 1939 season as a Gloversville Glover and his prestigious career in professional baseball, Enos has been nominated for induction into the Fulton County Baseball and Sports Hall of Fame. The date and location of the ceremony will be announced.
A special ‘thank you’ to Anne Enos, Rich Gedman and Dan Duquette for their research assistance and input in writing this story.
Mike Hauser is the founder of the Fulton County Baseball & Sports Hall of Fame in Gloversville. If you have story ideas, old articles/photos or would like to nominate someone for the HOF, he can be reached through the organizations website at www.fchof.com, email; email@example.com or call (518) 725-5565. If you enjoyed this story and want to learn more about other sports history topics, look for Hauser’s “Hometown Sports Heroes” series on www.amazon.com and search; ‘Mike Hauser Hometown Sports Heroes.’
Why 780 retired generals and former national security leaders spoke out against Trump
On June 1, retired Army vice chief of staff Gen. Peter Chiarelli sat staring out at the Pacific Ocean in Gearhart, Ore., where his family had vacationed throughout his long military career. The peaceful scene was occasionally interrupted by the news flashing across the notebook computer in his lap. In a Rose Garden speech that afternoon, President Trump addressed the racial justice protests spreading across the nation after the brutal killing of George Floyd in police custody a week earlier.
In the speech, Trump proclaimed himself “your president of law and order,” and claimed the protests had been hijacked by “professional anarchists, violent mobs, arsonists, looters, criminals, rider rioters, antifa and others” intent on “domestic terror.” News cameras showed some of the hundreds of National Guard troops from around the country that had been sent to reinforce the D.C. Guard, and there were reports that 1,600 active-duty troops were on high alert just outside the capital. Privately, Trump was threatening to invoke the Insurrection Act in order to send thousands more active-duty troops onto the nation’s streets in a show of dominant military force, criticizing weak governors and mayors around the country for not doing more to forcefully stamp out the protests.
The television cameras shifted to a mostly peaceful crowd of protesters across Lafayette Park from the White House. Chiarelli sat up when a phalanx of federal police and National Guard troops suddenly marched into the peaceful crowd, backed by a small cavalry of Park Police on horseback. There were flash-bang explosions, clouds of tear gas and the crackle of pepper balls as riot police used shields and batons to pummel some in the crowd. A woman could be heard plaintively shouting above the din, “Why are you shooting at us?!”
After the crowd was dispersed, Chiarelli watched with growing alarm as President Trump strode purposefully across Lafayette Park flanked by Attorney General William Barr, Defense Secretary Mark Esper, and Gen. Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Chiarelli had served in combat with Milley in Iraq, and considered him a good friend. That Mark Milley would have known better than to appear at the president’s side in his camouflage uniform after a show of dominant force against protesters on the streets of America.
In front of historic Saint John’s Church, damaged by fire during earlier protests, Trump posed silently holding a bible aloft for a 2-minute photo op. At long last, President Trump had the image of the “American carnage” that he had promised to end in his inauguration speech, insisting that he alone could fix it.
Along with a cadre of other retired generals, a very upset Peter Chiarelli decided to contact his old friend General Milley, the most senior uniformed leader in the country. After serving as commander of the 147.000 U.S. and coalition troops of Multi-National Corps – Iraq, Chiarelli as vice chief of the Army had led Defense Department efforts to treat post-traumatic stress, traumatic brain injury and suicide prevention. On his retirement in 2012, he became the first CEO of One Mind, which supports research into brain illnesses and injuries.
“That whole incident around Lafayette Square was stunning to me, because those were mostly peaceful demonstrators exercising a right guaranteed by the Constitution that I’ve sworn allegiance to throughout my entire career,” said Chiarelli in an interview. That allegiance is not given to a political party, Congress or the president of the United States, he noted, making the image of a uniformed chairman of the Joint Chiefs and the defense secretary at Trump’s side that day so alarming. General Milley later apologized for his presence in Lafayette Square, and Defense Secretary Mark Esper earned the president’s enmity by publicly opposing invocation of the Insurrection Act in order to use U.S. military troops to “dominate” the streets.
Along with more than 780 retired high-ranking officers and former national security leaders — including 22 retired four-star generals and admirals and five former secretaries of defense — Chiarelli signed an “Open Letter to America” endorsing Joe Biden for president. “We love our country,” the signatories wrote. “Unfortunately, we also fear for it.”
“Signing that letter was very hard for me to do, because I have never done that before or even given a dollar to a political campaign. Frankly, even as a retired general I didn’t think it was the right thing to do,” said Chiarelli, stressing that active-duty military officers are indoctrinated from a young age to remain strictly nonpartisan and apolitical. “But this president has assaulted the military justice system on behalf of individuals charged with war crimes. He has ended the career of service members like [impeachment witness Lt. Col. Alexander] Vindman for doing his duty and what was right. He has maligned mail-in voting as a fraud and suggested he might claim victory in a close election before all the ballots are counted, when as a service member I have voted absentee by mail my entire life. So like everyone else I’ve become numb after four years of this, but we have gone places in that time that I never dreamt we would go as a nation. I really do fear that the republic that I swore allegiance to is now under threat.”
Even among the cascade of scandals and controversies that have characterized the Trump presidency, the use of excessive force against mostly peaceful protesters near Lafayette Square, and the involvement of the top ranks of the U.S. military, still stands out. The incident conjured a truly dystopian vision of a U.S. president not only willing but eager to use the world’s most powerful military to crush domestic protests and “dominate” the streets of America, one that an increasing number of retired generals and senior national security experts believe could become all too real in a second Trump term.
Lafayette Square was so alarming that it shook Trump’s former Defense Secretary, retired four-star Marine Gen. Jim Mattis, out of his long silence on the president’s leadership, writing afterwards that “Donald Trump is the first president in my lifetime who does not try to unite the American people — does not even pretend to try.”
Trump’s troubling authoritarian instincts, focus on image over substance, constant misuse and politicization of nonpartisan institutions and penchant for chaos were all on clear display in Lafayette Square, and the incident crystalized the concerns expressed in the open letter. Traditionally both active-duty and retired U.S. military and intelligence officials have steered clear of politics, but in mid-September the Trump campaign released a letter signed by 235 retired senior military officers endorsing the president for reelection with the claim that Americans’ “historic way of life is at stake” if the “socialists and Marxists” of the Democratic Party take control of the government.
The willingness of hundreds of career officers to break with tradition and speak out on behalf of one candidate reflects beliefs, on both sides, that the nation faces an uncertain future, facing the worst pandemic in over a century, the worst economic decline since the Great Depression and the worst racial unrest since the 1960s. To the signers of the “Open Letter to America,” a second Trump term would only make things worse.
“Over the last three-plus years, I’ve watched the Trump administration politicize the Department of Justice and eviscerate the State Department, and the situation in Lafayette Square made clear that if reelected, Trump will politicize the Defense Department as well,” said retired Rear Adm. Mike Smith, who was instrumental in organizing the “Open Letter to America.” “A lot of us who spent our careers in the military would rather have stayed out of politics, but we have a deep moral conviction that the country can’t afford to go through another four years of this kind of leadership.”
Already the Lafayette Square incident has sunk beneath a wave of subsequent controversies and scandals, including recent revelations in investigative reporter Bob Woodward’s book “Rage,” based on numerous on-the-record interviews with Trump, that the president knew early on about the deadly and extremely contagious nature of the COVID-19 virus, but chose to continually play down the threat; the revelations in an article in the Atlantic, backed by reporting by the Washington Post, Fox News and other outlets, that Trump has repeatedly shown contempt for U.S. service members killed in combat, including referring to fallen soldiers and marines in cemeteries overseas as “losers” and “suckers”; Trump’s bullying and hectoring performance in the first presidential debate that astounded viewers at home and abroad; the president’s decision to put the health and lives of his Secret Service detail in jeopardy for a photo op after he tested positive for the coronavirus; and Trump’s insistence that the presidential election weeks away will be “the most rigged” in history, and his refusal to commit to accepting its results and peacefully transfer power if he loses.
President Trump’s relationship with military commanders might have been an asset in his reelection campaign. He has increased defense spending each year of his presidency, with the United States on track to spend more on the military in 2020 (adjusted for inflation) than at any point since World War II, with the exception of a few years at the height of the Iraq War. Early in his term, Trump pleased commanders by relaxing battlefield restrictions in the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and he ordered successful strikes that killed ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and Iranian Quds Force leader Qassem Soleimani.
As commander in chief, Trump also clearly revels in the pomp and spectacle of military parades, and in salutes to the troops. Yet from the early days of his presidency there were signs of severe tension between a president who has racked up an unprecedented 20,000 falsehoods since taking the oath, according to the Washington Post’s “Fact Checker,” and an institution built on the ethos that officers “will not lie, cheat, steal, or tolerate those who do.” There were also early indications that Trump was willing to politicize the most stringently apolitical institution in the U.S. government, treating appearances with the troops like political rallies where he excoriated Democrats and signed “Make America Great Again” hats. Before the 2018 midterm elections, Trump alarmed senior military leaders by sending active-duty troops to the southern border to confront a ragtag caravan of asylum seekers and migrants in a nakedly political stunt, and he diverted Pentagon funds to build sections of the wall he promised that Mexico would pay for.
From the beginning of his term, Trump has also exhibited indifference bordering on contempt for the sacrifices and principle of selfless service that underlies the military profession. Many officers were willing to look past the five draft deferments Trump received during the Vietnam War, including one for a “bone spur” diagnosis from a New York podiatrist who reportedly rented an apartment from Trump’s father.
More troubling to many uniformed leaders was Trump’s belittling of the Muslim Gold Star parents of a slain U.S. soldier who criticized him during the 2016 Democratic National Convention, and the president’s casual dismissal of the wartime service of the late Sen. John McCain, a former Navy pilot who spent more than five years being tormented in the notorious “Hanoi Hilton” prison. “He’s not a war hero,” said candidate Trump, when he was feuding with the Arizona senator. “He was a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren’t captured.”
In his first briefing inside the Pentagon’s classified “tank” with then Defense Secretary Mattis and the Joint Chiefs, Trump famously bristled at their arguments supporting NATO and ongoing operations in Afghanistan. “You’re all losers,” Trump reportedly said to a room full of four-star flag officers and combat veterans. “You don’t know how to win anymore.” After Mattis later resigned to protest Trump’s rash decision to pull U.S. troops out of Syria and abandon Kurdish allies in the fight against ISIS, Trump publicly dissed him as “the world’s most overrated general.”
“President Trump routinely shows disrespect towards exemplary leaders like Senator McCain, and towards General Jim Mattis, one of our very best,” said retired Marine Lt. General Frank Libutti, a combat veteran and Purple Heart recipient who signed the “Open Letter to America.” “It recalls his public ridicule of many of his top military and intelligence community leaders, and his insistence that he knows more about issues of national security than they do, which is nonsense. But what I found truly shocking were Trump’s comments about the Marines who sacrificed their lives for victory at Belleau Wood. I believe words count. Character counts. Temperament counts. And President Trump has shown himself beneath the dignity of the office.”
A seeming contempt for military service came through most clearly when Trump canceled a planned visit to a World War I military cemetery near Paris because of rain during a 2018 trip. Quoting four anonymous sources with firsthand knowledge of the discussion that day, the Atlantic’s editor in chief Jeffrey Goldberg reported that Trump said, “Why should I go to that cemetery? It’s filled with losers.” In a separate conversation on the same trip, Trump reportedly referred to the more than 1,800 Marines who lost their lives at Belleau Wood as “suckers” for getting killed. Fox News and the Washington Post later confirmed similar episodes of the president denigrating military service.
Retired Air Force Gen. Charles Boyd spent more than six years as a prisoner of war in North Vietnam, and he is the only Vietnam War POW to later reach four-star rank. “When I read the Atlantic article, I found it absolutely disgusting. The idea that the commander in chief holds those who serve under him with such contempt, just because they are not driven by the same desire for money and wealth as him, made me sick to my stomach. In all of my experiences in life, I’ve never known any group that is more honorable than military professionals, who sign an unlimited liability contract to sacrifice their lives if called to for this nation.”
In the past, Boyd has also opposed even retired flag officers endorsing candidates or becoming involved in partisan politics, but he made an exception this year by signing the “Open Letter to America.” “There’s a saying in the military that ‘officers eat last,’ which means that leadership is all about what’s best for your troops, and for the nation. President Trump has no concept of that kind of leadership. Everything he does is driven by what’s best for him personally, including casting doubt on any election results that don’t declare him the winner. That’s destructive to the very fiber of our democracy.”
Read more from GFN:
Twin Cities area youth sports coaches add COVID-19 protocols to daily routines
Mary Guzek is used to playing the role of “Team Mom” for her two sons’ Fridley youth football, basketball and baseball squads. Time was, that meant supplying snacks or filling water bottles.
But this fall, in the midst of a global pandemic, it means taking players’ temperatures before every practice and game, counseling parents of sick kids to keep them home and running down a checklist of whether any of the 22 players on the fifth-grade football team have a cough or feel short of breath.
“Unfortunately, it’s what we have had to do to make sure our kids can play,” said Guzek, whose boys are 12 and 10. “But it was worse in the spring, when seasons were canceled, and the kids were sad and depressed. Now, they can play.”
It’s hard enough for some parents to volunteer their time and energy at the end of a workday to coach youth sports. But with COVID-19 rapidly spreading, they’re now forced to do more than manage lineups and the Xs and Os to keep players on the field and the virus at bay.
Many parents and volunteer coaches across the metro have added COVID-19 protocols to their duties. Taking player temperatures, scrubbing down equipment and alternating practice times have, for most, become routine. Meanwhile, some park and recreation departments, not wanting to saddle volunteers with such responsibility, have moved away from traditional soccer and football games, offering instead skills camps run by paid staff members at a handful of hub sites.
Jayme Murphy, who focuses on COVID-19 issues for the Minnesota Amateur Sports Commission, said youth sports groups across the state spent much of the summer exploring ways they could safely play in the fall. Some, he said, were committed to playing out the season. Others created scaled-down versions of their usual offerings. Still others canceled seasons altogether.
Key to those decisions was determining whether coaches and parent volunteers would feel overwhelmed by the responsibility for keeping COVID-19 in check. The Minnesota Department of Health has issued 13 pages of guidelines for safely conducting youth and adult sports.
“The question for volunteers and parents to ask themselves is how comfortable are they with risk?” Murphy said. “If you’re uncomfortable with this, if you’re uncomfortable with your child’s participation in this, that’s ok.”
With COVID-19 cases continuing to rise across the state this fall, those comfort levels may be challenged even more as the winter sports season approaches.
In St. Paul, officials at the city’s Parks and Recreation department canceled sports at 26 recreation centers over the spring and summer. This fall, they replaced tackle football and competitive soccer with flag football and soccer skills programs hosted at six recreation centers.
They did so, because “we didn’t want to throw the responsibility for following those protocols onto volunteer coaches,” said Andy Rodriguez, recreation services manager.
By limiting offerings to six sites, supervised by city employees with help from coaches at Cretin-Derham Hall and the Sanneh Foundation, Rodriguez said the city can better control social distancing, sanitizing equipment and health screening. Nearly 600 kids, ages 3-14, registered for soccer in St. Paul, Rodriguez said. Almost 400 kids, ages 8-12, signed up for flag football.
“For the most part, the families we have been working with are just thankful for something for their kids to do in the fall,” he said.
Davis Vue who helped his 7-year-old son Memphis tie his shoes on a recent night, said he is one of the happy parents. The St. Paul native watched the coronavirus wipe out his own flag football league season, so he appreciates the city finding a way for Memphis to participate. It’s his son’s first year playing and he hasn’t missed a night, his father said.
“With this pandemic going on, I’m surprised Parks and Rec had this going on for kids,” Vue said. “I’m really glad they did.”
There’s also no tackle football in Minneapolis, where the city’s Park Board has offered flag football for young athletes 6-18. The soccer season has continued with a citywide schedule and volunteer coaches, said Mimi Kalb, director of Athletic Programs and Aquatics for the Minneapolis Park Board. Younger children — on 6U and 8U teams — are playing games in “smaller service areas” with city staff members conducting many of the COVID-19 protocols, she said.
Some coaches and players and families opted out of playing, “but for those who wanted to play, we tried to take a lot of the responsibility off the coaches,” she said. “Our park staff and league directors are doing a lot of that.”
Tim Grate, athletics program director for Minneapolis Parks and Recreation, said many coaches have successfully incorporated their new responsibilities.
“I’ve seen coaches who laid out cones to make sure [players are] social distancing,” he said. “I haven’t heard a lot of complaints.”
John Swanson, a Fridley varsity football coach who oversees more than 200 youth teams across the north metro, said about 30 % of them opted out of play due to COVID-19 concerns. Those that remained were committed to following all the necessary rules to keep playing.
“It’s one of the few things that still connects community,” he said. “Youth sports help us maintain that connectivity.”
Coaches and team moms and dads are keeping spreadsheets, taking temperatures, cleaning equipment, staggering practice nights and holding kids out if they show symptoms or test positive, he said. Teams have built time into their schedules to play makeup games when any had to quarantine for 14 days. So far, he said, there have been no COVID-19 cases transmitted on the football field.
“I don’t think we are asking the coaches to do too much,” Swanson said. “Volunteer coaches have proved they can do it.”
Q3 2020 Update Exhibit 99.1
Highlights 03 Financial Summary04 Operational Summary06 Vehicle Capacity 07 Core Technology 08 Other Highlights09 Outlook10 Battery Day Highlights11 Photos & Charts13 Financial Statements23 Additional Information28
The third quarter of 2020 was a record quarter on many levels. Over the past four quarters, we generated over $1.9B of free cash flow while spending $2.4B on new production capacity, service centers, Supercharging locations and other capital investments. While we took additional SBC expense in Q3, our GAAP operating margin reached 9.2%. We are increasingly focused on our next phase of growth. Our most recent capacity expansion investments are now stabilizing with Model 3 in Shanghai achieving its designed production rate and Model Y in Fremont expected to reach capacity-level production soon. During this next phase, we are implementing more ambitious architectural changes to our products and factories to improve manufacturing cost and efficiency. We are also expanding our scope of manufacturing to include additional areas of insourcing. At Tesla Battery Day, we announced our plans to manufacture battery cells in-house to aid in our rapid expansion plan. We believe our new 4680 cells are an important step forward to reduce cost and improve capital efficiency, while improving performance. We continue to see growing interest in our cars, storage and solar products and remain focused on cost-efficiency while growing capacity as quickly as possible. $5.9B increase in our cash and cash equivalents in Q3 to $14.5B Operating cash flow less capex (free cash flow) of $1.4B in Q3 Cash Record vehicle deliveries, profitability and free cash flow Buildout of three new factories on three continents continues as planned First step of FSD beta rollout started in Oct. 2020 Profitability $809M GAAP operating income; 9.2% operating margin in Q3 $331M GAAP net income; $874M non-GAAP net income (ex-SBC) in Q3 SBC expense increased to $543M (driven by 2018 CEO award milestones) Operations S U M M A R Y H I G H L I G H T S 3 SBC = stock-based compensation
F I N A N C I A L S U M M A R Y (Unaudited) 4 ($ in millions, except percentages and per share data) Q3-2019 Q4-2019 Q1-2020 Q2-2020 Q3-2020 QoQ YoY Automotive revenues 5,353 6,368 5,132 5,179 7,611 47% 42% of which regulatory credits 134 133 354 428 397 -7% 196% Automotive gross profit 1,222 1,434 1,311 1,317 2,105 60% 72% Automotive gross margin 22.8% 22.5% 25.5% 25.4% 27.7% 223 bp 483 bp Total revenues 6,303 7,384 5,985 6,036 8,771 45% 39% Total gross profit 1,191 1,391 1,234 1,267 2,063 63% 73% Total GAAP gross margin 18.9% 18.8% 20.6% 21.0% 23.5% 253 bp 462 bp Operating expenses 930 1,032 951 940 1,254 33% 35% Income from operations 261 359 283 327 809 147% 210% Operating margin 4.1% 4.9% 4.7% 5.4% 9.2% 381 bp 508 bp Adjusted EBITDA 1,083 1,175 951 1,209 1,807 49% 67% Adjusted EBITDA margin 17.2% 15.9% 15.9% 20.0% 20.6% 57 bp 342 bp Net income attributable to common stockholders (GAAP) 143 105 16 104 331 218% 131% Net income attributable to common stockholders (non-GAAP) 342 386 227 451 874 94% 156% EPS attributable to common stockholders, diluted (GAAP) (1) 0.16 0.11 0.02 0.10 0.27 170% 69% EPS attributable to common stockholders, diluted (non-GAAP) (1) 0.37 0.41 0.23 0.44 0.76 73% 105% Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities 756 1,425 (440) 964 2,400 149% 217% Capital expenditures (385) (412) (455) (546) (1,005) 84% 161% Free cash flow 371 1,013 (895) 418 1,395 234% 276% Cash and cash equivalents 5,338 6,268 8,080 8,615 14,531 69% 172% (1) Prior period results have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the five-for-one stock split effected in the form of a stock dividend in August 2020. EPS = Earnings per share
F I N A N C I A L S U M M A R Y Revenue Profitability Cash Total revenue grew 39% YoY in Q3. This was achieved mainly through substantial growth in vehicle deliveries as well as growth in other parts of the business. At the same time, vehicle average selling price (ASP) declined slightly compared to the same period last year as our product mix continues to shift from Model S and Model X to the more affordable Model 3 and Model Y. Our operating income improved in Q3 to a record level of $809M, resulting in a 9.2% operating margin. This profit level was reached while we took increased SBC expense in Q3 attributable to the 2018 CEO award, of which $290M was triggered by a significant increase in share price and market capitalization and a new operational milestone becoming probable. Positive profit impacts included strong volume, better fixed cost absorption and continuous cost reduction. Quarter-end cash and cash equivalents increased by $5.9B QoQ to $14.5B, driven mainly by our recent capital raise of $5.0B (average price of this offering was ~$449/share) combined with free cash flow of $1.4B and partially offset by reduced use of working capital credit lines. Since our days payable outstanding (DPO) are higher than days sales outstanding (DSO), revenue growth results in additional cash generation from working capital. DPO and DSO both declined sequentially in Q3 2020. 5
Q3-2019 Q4-2019 Q1-2020 Q2-2020 Q3-2020 QoQ YoY Model S/X production 16,318 17,933 15,390 6,326 16,992 169% 4% Model 3/Y production 79,837 86,958 87,282 75,946 128,044 69% 60% Total production 96,155 104,891 102,672 82,272 145,036 76% 51% Model S/X deliveries 17,483 19,475 12,230 10,614 15,275 44% -13% Model 3/Y deliveries 79,703 92,620 76,266 80,277 124,318 55% 56% Total deliveries 97,186 112,095 88,496 90,891 139,593 54% 44% of which subject to operating lease accounting 9,086 8,848 6,104 4,716 10,014 112% 10% Total end of quarter operating lease vehicle count 44,241 49,901 53,159 54,519 61,638 13% 39% Global vehicle inventory (days of supply)(1) 18 10 25 17 14 -18% -22% Solar deployed (MW) 43 54 35 27 57 111% 33% Storage deployed (MWh) 477 530 260 419 759 81% 59% Store and service locations 417 433 438 446 466 4% 12% Mobile service fleet 719 743 756 769 780 1% 8% Supercharger stations 1,653 1,821 1,917 2,035 2,181 7% 32% Supercharger connectors 14,658 16,104 17,007 18,100 19,437 7% 33% (1) Days of supply is calculated by dividing new car ending inventory by the quarter’s deliveries and using 75 trading days (aligned with Automotive News definition). 6 O P E R A T I O N A L S U M M A R Y (Unaudited)
Delivery percentage of locally-made vehicles* V E H I C L E C A P A C I T Y Fremont We have recently increased capacity of Model 3 / Model Y to 500,000 units a year. In order to do this, we restarted our second paint shop, installed the largest die-casting machine in the world and upgraded our Model Y general assembly line. Production should reach full capacity toward the end of this year or beginning of next year. Shanghai Model 3 production capacity has increased to 250,000 units a year. We reduced the price of Model 3 to 249,900 RMB after incentives, making it the lowest-price premium mid-sized sedan1 in China. This was enabled both by lower-cost batteries and an increased level of local procurement. As a result of this shift in cost and starting price, we recently added a third production shift to our Model 3 factory. Berlin-Brandenburg Construction of the Gigafactory in Berlin continues to progress rapidly. Buildings are under construction and equipment move-in will start over the coming weeks. At the same time, the Giga Berlin team continues to grow. Production is expected to start in 2021. Installed Annual Capacity Current Status Fremont Model S / Model X 90,000 Production Model 3 / Model Y 500,000 Production Shanghai Model 3 250,000 Production Model Y – Construction Berlin Model 3 – In development Model Y – Construction Texas Model Y – Construction Cybertruck – In development United States Tesla Semi – In development Roadster – In development 7 Installed capacity ≠ Current production rate. Production rate depends on pace of factory ramp, supply chain ramp, downtime related to factory upgrades, national holidays and other factors. * Locally-made is defined as (i) cars made in Fremont and delivered in North America and (ii) cars made in China and delivered in China. 1 Premium mid-sized sedan segment in China defined as Audi A4, BMW 3-Series, Mercedes C-Class and Tesla Model 3.
C O R E T E C H N O L O G Y Autopilot & Full Self Driving (FSD) Our Autopilot team has been focused on a fundamental architectural rewrite of our neural networks and control algorithms. This rewrite will allow the remaining driving features to be released. In October, we sent the first FSD software update enabled by the rewrite to a limited number of Early Access Program users — City Streets. As we continue to collect data over time, the system will become more robust. Vehicle Software New software functionality was introduced since the start of Q3. In order to make our products safer from unauthorized access, we introduced the ability to enable 2-step verification via a smartphone. Additionally, among many other updates, we improved active suspension comfort, updated Powerwall-to-vehicle charging coordination and added an automated window close function and glovebox PIN access. Our Model Y AWD customers can now purchase a $2,000 software update that improves 0-60 mph time to just 4.3s. Battery & Powertrain On September 22, we hosted Tesla Battery Day where we described a path to reducing battery pack cost per kWh by 56%, enabling production of a profitable $25,000 vehicle. This, in our view, is a critical component to exceed cost parity with internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, due to a simpler cell manufacturing process, we believe capex per GWh of battery capacity should decline by 69% compared to today’s production process. How our vehicles see an intersection 8 How our Neural Net understands the same intersection (generalized approach for any unmapped intersection)
O T H E R H I G H L I G H T S Energy Business Our energy storage business reached record deployments of 759 MWh in Q3. Megapack production continued to ramp at Gigafactory Nevada as production volumes more than doubled in Q3. Powerwall demand remains strong and is growing, particularly as our solar business grows as many customers include a Powerwall with their solar installation. Additionally, we are seeing accelerating interest in Powerwall as concerns with grid stability grow, particularly in California. We continue to believe that the energy business will ultimately be as large as our vehicle business. Our recently introduced strategy of low cost solar (at $1.49/watt in the US after tax credit) is starting to have an impact. Total solar deployments more than doubled in Q3 to 57 MW compared to the prior quarter, with Solar Roof deployments almost tripling sequentially. While not yet at scale, we recently demonstrated a ~1.5-day Solar Roof install, as shown below in the photos. For Solar Roof, installation time is a key area of focus to accelerate the growth of this program. We continue to onboard hundreds of electricians and roofers to grow this business. 9 7:30 am Noon 2:00 pm (the next day)
O U T L O O K Volume Cash Flow Profit Product We have the capacity installed to produce and deliver 500,000 vehicles this year. While achieving this goal has become more difficult, delivering half a million vehicles in 2020 remains our target. Achieving this target depends primarily on quarter over quarter increases in Model Y and Shanghai production, as well as further improvements in logistics and delivery efficiency at higher volume levels. We should have sufficient liquidity to fund our product roadmap, long-term capacity expansion plans and other expenses. For the trailing 12 months, we achieved an operating margin of 6.3%. We expect our operating margin will continue to grow over time, ultimately reaching industry-leading levels with capacity expansion and localization plans underway. We are currently building Model Y capacity at Gigafactory Shanghai, Gigafactory Berlin and Gigafactory Texas, and remain on track to start deliveries from each location in 2021. Tesla Semi deliveries will also begin in 2021. We continue to significantly invest in our product roadmap. 10
B A T T E R Y D A Y H I G H L I G H T S
Area of improvement Description Range Increase* $/kWh Cost Reduction* $/GWh Capex Reduction* Cell Design After considering every form factor and cell size across quantifiable factors, we deemed 80 mm height by 46 mm diameter cylindrical to be best These dimensions maximize vehicle range (pack level energy density) while minimizing manufacturing and product cost The challenge is that large diameter cylindrical cells easily overheat during supercharging We identified a tab-less design solution to resolve the overheating challenge and simplify manufacturing 16% 14% 7% Cell Factory Electrode Current electrode production process involves mixing liquids with cathode or anode powders and using massive machinery to coat and dry electrode New process allows going directly from cathode or anode powder to an electrode film 0% 18% 34% Winding Larger cells improve winder productivity Incorporates our tab-less design Assembly Large cells moving at high speed with simplification in process steps enables a single production line to have 20 GWh of capacity Formation Leveraging our power electronics to densify and reduce costs of the final charging and testing step of millions of cells Anode Material Silicon is a better anode material than graphite – stores 9x more lithium, but silicon expansion brings challenges Silicon used in anodes today is highly engineered and expensive Raw silicon with our coating design will cost just $1.20/kWh Expansion of silicon is managed by stabilizing surface and by creating an elastic binder network 20% 5% 4% Cathode Material We are taking a diversified cathode approach to maximize available supply options: all usable in our 4680 cells We are planning to manufacture cathode in-house, using far less water and reagents in a simplified production process Focus on local sourcing for each cell factory to avoid unnecessary transportation cost Actively pursuing pathways to vertically integrate lithium production for a portion of supply 4% 12% 16% Cell-Vehicle Integration Current EV design: cells to modules, modules to battery pack, battery pack to vehicle Future EV design: cells directly integrated into vehicle body with giga castings Battery is no longer carried as “luggage”, will provide new utility as a load-bearing frame element This unlocks high-efficiency factories and mechanical structures— best manufacturability, weight, range and cost 14% 7% 8% Projected Total Improvement 54% 56% 69% F I V E A R E A S O F F O C U S 12 * Our current projections.
P H O T O S & C H A R T S
G I G A F A C T O R Y S H A N G H A I – M O D E L Y F A C T O R Y ( F O R E G R O U N D ) ; M O D E L 3 F A C T O R Y ( B A C K G R O U N D ) 14
G I G A F A C T O R Y S H A N G H A I – M O D E L Y D I E C A S T 15
G I G A F A C T O R Y S H A N G H A I – M O D E L Y B O D Y S H O P 16
G I G A F A C T O R Y S H A N G H A I – M O D E L Y P A I N T S H O P 17
18 G I G A F A C T O R Y B E R L I N – M O D E L Y F A C T O R Y C O N S T R U C T I O N
19 G I G A F A C T O R Y T E X A S
20 M E G A P A C K P R O J E C T AT M O S S L A N D I N G
Vehicle Deliveries (units) Net Income ($B) K E Y M E T R I C S Q U A R T E R L Y (Unaudited) 21 Operating Cash Flow ($B) Free Cash Flow ($B)
K E Y M E T R I C S T R A I L I N G 1 2 M O N T H S ( T T M ) (Unaudited) Vehicle Deliveries (units) Operating Cash Flow ($B) Free Cash Flow ($B) Net Income ($B) 22
F I N A N C I A L S T A T E M E N T S
In millions of USD or shares as applicable, except per share data Q3-2019 Q4-2019 Q1-2020 Q2-2020 Q3-2020 REVENUES Automotive sales 5,132 6,143 4,893 4,911 7,346 Automotive leasing 221 225 239 268 265 Total automotive revenue 5,353 6,368 5,132 5,179 7,611 Energy generation and storage 402 436 293 370 579 Services and other 548 580 560 487 581 Total revenues 6,303 7,384 5,985 6,036 8,771 COST OF REVENUES Automotive sales 4,014 4,815 3,699 3,714 5,361 Automotive leasing 117 119 122 148 145 Total automotive cost of revenues 4,131 4,934 3,821 3,862 5,506 Energy generation and storage 314 385 282 349 558 Services and other 667 674 648 558 644 Total cost of revenues 5,112 5,993 4,751 4,769 6,708 Gross profit 1,191 1,391 1,234 1,267 2,063 OPERATING EXPENSES Research and development 334 345 324 279 366 Selling, general and administrative 596 699 627 661 888 Restructuring and other – (12) – – – Total operating expenses 930 1,032 951 940 1,254 INCOME FROM OPERATIONS 261 359 283 327 809 Interest income 15 10 10 8 6 Interest expense (185) (170) (169) (170) (163) Other income (expense), net 85 (25) (54) (15) (97) INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES 176 174 70 150 555 Provision for income taxes 26 42 2 21 186 NET INCOME 150 132 68 129 369 Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests 7 27 52 25 38 NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON STOCKHOLDERS 143 105 16 104 331 Less: Buy-out of noncontrolling interest – – – – 31 NET INCOME USED IN COMPUTING NET INCOME PER SHARE OF COMMON STOCK 143 105 16 104 300 Net income per share of common stock attributable to common stockholders(1) Basic $ 0.16 $ 0.12 $ 0.02 $ 0.11 $ 0.32 Diluted $ 0.16 $ 0.11 $ 0.02 $ 0.10 $ 0.27 Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share of common stock(1) Basic 897 902 915 928 937 Diluted 922 935 994 1,036 1,105 S T A T E M E N T O F O P E R A T I O N S (Unaudited) 24 (1) Prior period results have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the five-for-one stock split effected in the form of a stock dividend in August 2020
B A L A N C E S H E E T (Unaudited) In millions of USD 30-Sep-19 31-Dec-19 31-Mar-20 30-Jun-20 30-Sep-20 ASSETS Current assets Cash and cash equivalents 5,338 6,268 8,080 8,615 14,531 Accounts receivable, net 1,128 1,324 1,274 1,485 1,757 Inventory 3,581 3,552 4,494 4,018 4,218 Prepaid expenses and other current assets 893 959 1,045 1,218 1,238 Total current assets 10,940 12,103 14,893 15,336 21,744 Operating lease vehicles, net 2,253 2,447 2,527 2,524 2,742 Solar energy systems, net 6,168 6,138 6,106 6,069 6,025 Property, plant and equipment, net 10,190 10,396 10,638 11,009 11,848 Operating lease right-of-use assets 1,234 1,218 1,197 1,274 1,375 Goodwill and intangible assets, net 537 537 516 508 521 Other non-current assets 1,473 1,470 1,373 1,415 1,436 Total assets 32,795 34,309 37,250 38,135 45,691 LIABILITIES AND EQUITY Current liabilities Accounts payable 3,468 3,771 3,970 3,638 4,958 Accrued liabilities and other 2,938 3,222 2,825 3,110 3,252 Deferred revenue 1,045 1,163 1,186 1,130 1,258 Customer deposits 665 726 788 713 708 Current portion of debt and finance leases (1) 2,030 1,785 3,217 3,679 3,126 Total current liabilities 10,146 10,667 11,986 12,270 13,302 Debt and finance leases, net of current portion (1) 11,313 11,634 10,666 10,416 10,559 Deferred revenue, net of current portion 1,140 1,207 1,199 1,198 1,233 Other long-term liabilities 2,714 2,691 2,667 2,870 3,049 Total liabilities 25,313 26,199 26,518 26,754 28,143 Redeemable noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries 600 643 632 613 608 Convertible senior notes — — 60 44 48 Total stockholders’ equity 6,040 6,618 9,173 9,855 16,031 Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries 842 849 867 869 861 Total liabilities and equity 32,795 34,309 37,250 38,135 45,691 (1) Breakdown of our debt is as follows: Vehicle and energy product financing (non-recourse) 3,702 4,183 4,022 4,043 4,141 Other non-recourse debt 155 355 708 1,415 605 Recourse debt 7,882 7,263 7,600 7,106 7,448 Total debt excluding vehicle and energy product financing 8,037 7,618 8,308 8,521 8,053 25
In millions of USD Q3-2019 Q4-2019 Q1-2020 Q2-2020 Q3-2020 CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net income 150 132 68 129 369 Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities: Depreciation, amortization and impairment 530 577 553 567 584 Stock-based compensation 199 281 211 347 543 Other 69 204 175 167 269 Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of business combinations (192) 231 (1,447) (246) 635 Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities 756 1,425 (440) 964 2,400 CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES Capital expenditures (385) (412) (455) (546) (1,005) Purchases of solar energy systems, net of sales (25) (37) (26) (20) (16) Purchase of intangible assets — — — — (5) Receipt of government grants — 46 1 — — Business combinations, net of cash acquired (76) — — — (13) Net cash used in investing activities (486) (403) (480) (566) (1,039) CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Net cash flows from debt activities (55) (591) 544 164 (630) Collateralized lease repayments (83) (87) (97) (71) (56) Net borrowings (repayments) under vehicle and solar financing 183 478 (160) 18 99 Net cash flows from noncontrolling interests – Auto 30 19 (8) (3) (31) Net cash flows from noncontrolling interests – Solar (28) 6 (40) (42) (49) Proceeds from issuances of common stock in public offerings, net of issuance costs — — 2,309 — 4,973 Other 71 96 160 57 144 Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities 118 (79) 2,708 123 4,450 Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash (11) 14 (24) 38 86 Net increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash 377 957 1,764 559 5,897 Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period 5,449 5,826 6,783 8,547 9,106 Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period 5,826 6,783 8,547 9,106 15,003 S T A T E M E N T O F C A S H F L O W S (Unaudited) 26
In millions of USD or shares as applicable, except per share data Q3-2019 Q4-2019 Q1-2020 Q2-2020 Q3-2020 Net income attributable to common stockholders (GAAP) 143 105 16 104 331 Stock-based compensation expense 199 281 211 347 543 Net income attributable to common stockholders (non-GAAP) 342 386 227 451 874 Less: Buy-out of noncontrolling interest – – – – 31 Net income used in computing EPS attributable to common stockholders (non-GAAP) 342 386 227 451 843 EPS attributable to common stockholders, diluted (GAAP)(1) 0.16 0.11 0.02 0.10 0.27 Stock-based compensation expense per share(1) 0.21 0.30 0.21 0.34 0.49 EPS attributable to common stockholders, diluted (non-GAAP)(1) 0.37 0.41 0.23 0.44 0.76 Shares used in EPS calculation, diluted (GAAP and non-GAAP)(1) 922 935 994 1,036 1,105 Net income attributable to common stockholders (GAAP) 143 105 16 104 331 Interest expense 185 170 169 170 163 Provision for income taxes 26 42 2 21 186 Depreciation, amortization and impairment 530 577 553 567 584 Stock-based compensation expense 199 281 211 347 543 Adjusted EBITDA (non-GAAP) 1,083 1,175 951 1,209 1,807 Total revenues 6,303 7,384 5,985 6,036 8,771 Adjusted EBITDA margin (non-GAAP)(2) 17.2% 15.9% 15.9% 20.0% 20.6% Automotive gross margin (GAAP) 22.8% 22.5% 25.5% 25.4% 27.7% Less: Total regulatory credit revenue recognized 2.0% 1.6% 5.5% 6.7% 4.0% Automotive gross margin excluding regulatory credits (non-GAAP) 20.8% 20.9% 20.0% 18.7% 23.7% R e c o n c I l I a t I o n o f G A A P t o N o n – G A A P F I n a n c I a l I n f o r m a t I o n (Unaudited) 27 In millions of USD 4Q-2017 1Q-2018 2Q-2018 3Q-2018 4Q-2018 1Q-2019 2Q-2019 3Q-2019 4Q-2019 1Q-2020 2Q-2020 3Q-2020 Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities (GAAP) 510 (398) (130) 1,391 1,235 (640) 864 756 1,425 (440) 964 2,400 Capital expenditures (787) (656) (610) (510) (325) (280) (250) (385) (412) (455) (546) (1,005) Free cash flow (non-GAAP) (277) (1,054) (740) 881 910 (920) 614 371 1,013 (895) 418 1,395 In millions of USD 4Q-2017 1Q-2018 2Q-2018 3Q-2018 4Q-2018 1Q-2019 2Q-2019 3Q-2019 4Q-2019 1Q-2020 2Q-2020 3Q-2020 Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities – TTM (GAAP) (61) (389) (319) 1,373 2,098 1,856 2,850 2,215 2,405 2,605 2,705 4,349 Capital expenditures – TTM (3,415) (3,518) (3,169) (2,563) (2,101) (1,725) (1,365) (1,240) (1,327) (1,502) (1,798) (2,418) Free cash flow – TTM (non-GAAP) (3,476) (3,907) (3,488) (1,190) (3) 131 1,485 975 1,078 1,103 907 1,931 (1) Prior period results have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the five-for-one stock split effected in the form of a stock dividend in August 2020 (2) Adjusted EBITDA margin is Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of total revenues
A D D I T I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N WEBCAST INFORMATION Tesla will provide a live webcast of its third quarter 2020 financial results conference call beginning at 2:30 p.m. PT on October 21, 2020 at ir.tesla.com. This webcast will also be available for replay for approximately one year thereafter. CERTAIN TERMS When used in this update, certain terms have the following meanings. Our vehicle deliveries include only vehicles that have been transferred to end customers with all paperwork correctly completed. Our energy product deployment volume includes both customer units installed and equipment sales; we report installations at time of commissioning for storage projects or inspection for solar projects, and equipment sales at time of delivery. “Adjusted EBITDA” is equal to (i) net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders before (ii)(a) interest expense, (b) provision for income taxes, (c) depreciation, amortization and impairment and (d) stock-based compensation expense, which is the same measurement for this term pursuant to the performance-based stock option award granted to our CEO in 2018. “Free cash flow” is operating cash flow less capital expenditures. NON-GAAP FINANCIAL INFORMATION Consolidated financial information has been presented in accordance with GAAP as well as on a non-GAAP basis to supplement our consolidated financial results. Our non-GAAP financial measures include non-GAAP automotive gross margin, non-GAAP net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, non-GAAP net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders on a diluted per share basis (calculated using weighted average shares for GAAP diluted net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders), Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, and free cash flow. These non-GAAP financial measures also facilitate management’s internal comparisons to Tesla’s historical performance as well as comparisons to the operating results of other companies. Management believes that it is useful to supplement its GAAP financial statements with this non-GAAP information because management uses such information internally for its operating, budgeting and financial planning purposes. Management also believes that presentation of the non-GAAP financial measures provides useful information to our investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations so that investors can see through the eyes of Tesla management regarding important financial metrics that Tesla uses to run the business, and allowing investors to better understand Tesla’s performance. Non-GAAP information is not prepared under a comprehensive set of accounting rules and therefore, should only be read in conjunction with financial information reported under U.S. GAAP when understanding Tesla’s operating performance. A reconciliation between GAAP and non-GAAP financial information is provided above. FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS Certain statements in this update, including statements in the “Outlook” section; statements relating to the future development, production capacity and output rates, demand and market growth, deliveries, deployment, safety, range and other features and improvements, and timing of existing and future Tesla products and technologies such as Model 3, Model Y, Cybertruck, Tesla Semi, Roadster, Autopilot and Full Self Driving, our energy products and services such as Megapack, Solar Roof and Powerwall, and the battery cells we are developing and related technologies; statements regarding operating margin, spending and liquidity targets; statements regarding manufacturing and procurement improvements, cost reductions and efficiencies; statements regarding construction, expansion, improvements and/or ramp at the Tesla Factory, Gigafactory Shanghai, Gigafactory Berlin and Gigafactory Texas; and statements regarding our hiring targets are “forward-looking statements” that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, and as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, actual results may differ materially from those projected. The following important factors, without limitation, could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements: uncertainties in future macroeconomic and regulatory conditions arising from the current global pandemic; the risk of delays in launching and manufacturing our products and features cost-effectively; our ability to grow our sales, delivery, installation, servicing and charging capabilities and effectively manage this growth; consumers’ willingness to adopt electric vehicles generally and our vehicles specifically; the ability of suppliers to deliver components according to schedules, prices, quality and volumes acceptable to us, and our ability to manage such components effectively; any issues with lithium-ion cells or other components manufactured at Gigafactory Nevada; our ability to build and ramp Gigafactory Shanghai, Gigafactory Berlin and Gigafactory Texas in accordance with our plans; our ability to procure supply of battery cells, including through our own manufacturing; risks relating to international expansion; any failures by Tesla products to perform as expected or if product recalls occur; the risk of product liability claims; competition in the automotive and energy product markets; our ability to maintain public credibility and confidence in our long-term business prospects; our ability to manage risks relating to our various product financing programs; the unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives for electric vehicles and energy products; our ability to attract and retain key employees and qualified personnel and ramp our installation teams; our ability to maintain the security of our information and production and product systems; our compliance with various regulations and laws applicable to our operations and products, which may evolve from time to time; risks relating to our indebtedness and financing strategies; and adverse foreign exchange movements. More information on potential factors that could affect our financial results is included from time to time in our Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports, including the risks identified under the section captioned “Risk Factors” in our quarterly report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on July 28, 2020. Tesla disclaims any obligation to update information contained in these forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. 28
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