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How DIY technologies are democratizing science

Mish Boyka

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How DIY technologies are democratizing science
A 3D printed fluorescence microscope with lens looking down onto a petri dish is set up on a lab bench with a monitor behind

DIY hardware, such as this 3D-printed fluorescence microscope, is bringing cutting-edge research and diagnostics to resource-limited areas.Credit: Stuart Robinson/Univ. Sussex

Eyes trained on the cells under his microscope, Gustavo Batista Menezes had more on his mind than just science.

Menezes was using a specialized confocal microscope at the University of Calgary, Canada, that cost nearly one million dollars, and he had no idea how he would afford one when he returned home to Brazil to start his own lab. “It’s almost impossible to have that amount of money in low-income countries,” says Menezes. So, when he got a position in 2009 at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, he opted not to buy a fancy commercial instrument; he jury-rigged his own.

Menezes uses microscopy to visualize cells in live mice. Modifying existing microscopes to do this ‘intravital’ imaging typically costs US$5,000–10,000. But Menezes found a cheaper way: he pooled funds with colleagues and bought a cheap, bare-bones confocal microscope, a $1 plexiglass stage and a $2 infrared lamp from a local hardware store. “Twelve minutes after the microscope was installed in my lab,” he says, it produced its first in vivo images. It would go on to generate images that were good enough to twice make the cover of the journal Hepatology.

“The idea that scientists build their own equipment is as old as science,” says Tom Baden, a neuroscientist at the University of Sussex near Brighton, UK, who co-founded a non-profit organization known as Teaching and Research in Natural Sciences for Development (TReND) in Africa, which, among other things, provides training in open-science hardware. What’s new is the online availability of a vast array of free open-source designs, and the growing ease of building them using 3D printers and hobbyist electronics such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi. Coupled with open-source reagents, these resources are making advanced diagnostics accessible even in resource-poor regions that lack trained technicians, cold storage and reliable power.

Building your own instruments — and synthesizing your own reagents — can be time-consuming and labour-intensive. It can yield materials that are more finicky and less reliable than commercial alternatives. And you’re on your own when it comes to technical support. Still, for those willing to stick it out, the result can be transformative. Menezes has shared his low-cost design1 with labs all over Brazil, including in some of the poorest parts of the country, where he says the professors had never before used a confocal microscope. “These technologies should be available to every single person that wants to do research,” he says.

Democratizing science

For some researchers, the allure of do-it-yourself research is the DIY itself: building and maintaining bespoke equipment is an engineering and technical challenge. But for others, it’s a financial matter. Homemade equipment tends to be substantially less expensive — and therefore more accessible — than commercial alternatives.

Thomas Mboa, founder of MboaLab, a collaborative space that provides training and resources for open science in Yaoundé, Cameroon, recalls that he didn’t get to even touch a microscope when he was studying molecular biology at the University of Yaoundé I. “I just had the theoretical knowledge, and the explanation they gave us at that time was that the equipment is very expensive,” he says. “Open science and DIY biology can fix the technological gap we are facing in Africa.”

Using freely available designs, researchers can build everything from pipettes and incubators to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machines for amplifying DNA. Joshua Pearce, a materials engineer at Michigan Technological University in Houghton who has written a book about building open-source hardware in science, estimates that he’s saved hundreds of thousands of dollars by building his own lab equipment. “We basically don’t buy stuff any more,” he says. Hardware built from open-source designs generally costs just 1–10% of the price of commercial counterparts, says Pearce, and he has curated many of the designs on his website, Open-Source Lab.

“Hardware is the last barrier that we need to break before science really becomes more widely available,” says University of Sussex research bioengineer Andre Maia Chagas. Chagas has started a database, called Open Neuroscience, that people can use to share their projects, and he provides advice to TReND in Africa. Open hardware, he says, can help to democratize research in places such as India, Brazil and across Africa. “Now groups in all these countries can build things themselves and bring themselves to the same playing field,” he says.

Fernan Federici is a case in point. Instead of buying an off-the-shelf fluorescent microscope for $25,000 or more, Federici, a molecular biologist at the Catholic University of Chile in Santiago, 3D-printed his own for just $250. It can’t do everything that a brand-name instrument can, but it does enough. “We needed a specific application — getting fluorescent time-lapses of bacteria growing — and we could do it with open hardware,” he says.

Two people work at a table on a metal and plastic frame while other people work at tables around them

People take part in the TReND 2018 Open Labware Course in Cape Town, South Africa.Credit: Agnieszka Pokrywka

Another advantage of DIY hardware is customizability. The 3D-printable OpenFlexure microscope2, for instance, “was designed for labs in the UK that currently buy an expensive commercial microscope and then take a chisel to it, to customize the optics”, says Richard Bowman, a physicist at the University of Bath, UK, who started the project. A fully automated lab-grade OpenFlexure microscope with a digital camera, motorized sample stage and focus control can cost as little as £200 (US$262). Researchers have customized the base design with optics and lasers suitable for applications such as super-resolution microscopy, but the low cost and power requirements and the convenient portability of the microscope have also made it invaluable in resource-poor regions of Tanzania, where it’s being used to diagnose malaria.

Building your own equipment does mean doing without a warranty and tech support when something breaks. But that can actually be an advantage. Menezes says he’s usually better off repairing his own equipment: maintenance contracts are expensive, and it can take months for a technician to show up. Similarly, says Bowman, “by building the OpenFlexure microscope in Tanzania, we make sure that when it breaks, there’s someone local who’s able to fix it”.

DIY reagents

Jenny Molloy, a biotechnologist at the University of Cambridge, UK, is working to address another financial barrier to research. Recognizing that reagents often represent a significant hurdle to molecular-biology research in resource-poor regions, Molloy founded the Open Bioeconomy Lab, an interdisciplinary group that develops open-source tools for biotechnology. Since 2017, she has compiled 84 open-source enzymes and 45 reporter genes, including polymerases, ligases, reverse transcriptases, restriction enzymes and fluorescent proteins, in the Open Enzyme Collection. “We estimate that you can save at least 80–90% of the cost of an enzyme by producing your own,” she says.

Researchers can order research-grade reagents in the Open Enzyme Collection from the FreeGenes online catalogue as DNA components for cloning into expression vectors and expressing in bacteria to produce their own enzymes. Molloy is now developing ready-to-express plasmids that she can distribute through the non-profit repository Addgene. She is also working with Mboa to manufacture and sell low-cost, ready-to-use enzymes in Cameroon through the Yaoundé-based non-profit enterprise Beneficial Bio, with collaborations in other countries in the planning stage.

In many cases, Molloy says, the Open Enzyme Collection provides access to better reagents than researchers might otherwise be able to afford. The enzyme Taq polymerase, for instance, is a popular choice for PCR not because it’s necessarily the best, but because it’s inexpensive, she says. “Our keystone enzyme at the minute is OpenVent, and it’s much more thermostable and robust than Taq and has five-times higher fidelity.”

That said, labs that choose to DIY their own reagents have to be prepared to do their own enzyme expression, purification and testing. Molloy, who has run open-enzyme manufacturing courses in Ghana and Ethiopia, with others planned across Africa and South America, says the Open Bioeconomy Lab can provide easy-to-follow protocols for testing enzyme activity and purity. And the group is developing an open-source bioreactor for growing the cells that produce the desired enzymes. However, she says, “if you are not a protein expert, definitely reach out to other biologists who might be able to help you”.

Affordable diagnostics

DIY reagents can also reduce the cost of some molecular diagnostics, and Molloy has curated a selection of enzymes that could be applied to health care in resource-poor regions. Yet DIY diagnostics do require special considerations, she says. Devices and reagents have to meet higher standards and follow stringent regulations, while also being more robust and easy-to-use in a health-care setting.

To use the OpenFlexure microscope to diagnose malaria in Tanzania, for example, Bowman had to take loosely strewn electronic boards and cables from his lab set-up and present them in a user-friendly package. “Going from something that works in my lab, where we’re used to dealing with that kind of naked hardware, to having something that doesn’t freak out the parasitology technicians is quite a big step,” he says.

The same holds true for molecular assays, says Debojyoti Chakraborty, who heads an RNA biology group at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in New Delhi. Chakraborty and his colleague Souvik Maiti developed a cheap, portable paper-strip test to identify carriers of sickle-cell disease in rural India. “Things have to be simple; they have to be robust; and they have to be reproducible,” he says. Realizing that drawing blood samples from young children would require no small amount of coaxing, for instance, the pair worked out protocols to use DNA from saliva instead.

A gloved hand holding a multiwell plate holding two paper strips marks with arrows and lines used for testing COVID-19

Paper-based COVID-19 tests developed by the CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) are seen at an IGIB laboratory in New Delhi.Credit: Money Sharma/AFP/Getty

That adaptability helped the researchers to quickly repurpose their diagnostic to test for SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020. The resulting assay3,4 is expected to cost just 600 rupees (US$8) and can be performed in any lab with a regular PCR machine, compared with the 2,500–4,000 rupees for the typical advanced test that only specialized institutes can handle.

Similarly, when Navjot Kaur, a PhD student at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, developed a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic test5 for tuberculosis, she knew it had to be accessible to remote villages that lacked trained technicians, not to mention dependable power. So, she eschewed PCR’s thermal cycling in favour of an alternative that works at a constant temperature, and is working to increase the test’s stability in the absence of refrigerators and freezers. “It’s only when you go out in the field that you realize all these small things that can completely kill your fancy technology,” she says.

With so much technology now readily accessible, the biggest hurdle to wider adoption of DIY devices might actually be psychological. “Many times, there’s this perception that science needs to be very fancy,” says Lucia Prieto-Godino at the Francis Crick Institute in London. She tries to dispel that notion at open-hardware workshops run by TReND in Africa, which she co-founded with Baden and Sadiq Yusuf — although she admits that DIY projects can be daunting for the uninitiated.

Start small and with something that the lab really needs, Chagas advises. Open-science hardware designs are readily available online at the US National Institutes of Health 3D Print Exchange and the Public Library of Science Open Source Toolkit.

Also readily available is help,whether it’s online at such sites as Gathering for Open Science Hardware (GOSH) and the Africa Open Science and Hardware network (AfricaOSH), through your university’s engineering department or in local open-hardware communities such as Makerspaces and FabLabs. Such resources can quickly bridge gaps in skills and knowledge, Federici says. “We are able to put together a device that helps us to do fluorescence research without being an expert on any of these topics like fluorescence, engineering or electronics,” he says.

3D revolution

Many projects require 3D printing, which has transformed DIY science. “The fact that if you can dream of anything, you go to your garage and then start printing it out, it’s so empowering,” says Jephias Gwamuri, director of research and innovation at Great Zimbabwe University in Masvingo. He has been using 3D printers to print low-cost face shields, personal protective equipment and ventilator parts during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Decent 3D printers are now available for as little as $250, and generally come preassembled. However, as with PCR instruments, limited access to 3D printers and a lack of reliable electricity to run them remain barriers to DIY science.

Gwamuri is trying to rectify the power problem by designing solar-powered 3D printers that are small enough to fit in a duffel bag for transport to remote sites. He and Pearce have also worked to reduce the cost of filament used in 3D printers. Commercial filament costs $20 per kilogram, but Gwamuri found a way to make filament from recycled plastic waste that costs just $1–4 per kilogram, he says.

Researchers can also cut costs by recycling lab equipment, for instance from old or broken microscopes. “The most likely component to be able to reuse is the objective lens, which is also one of the most expensive and hard-to-source pieces,” says Bowman. Menezes built his own $5 gel imager — a device that normally costs $3,000–5,000 — out of an ultraviolet illuminator he fished out of the rubbish and some black plexiglass with a hole for a phone camera.

Such economy can extend tight budgets, but DIY hardware is of little use if it cannot generate reliable, replicable data. “The reason we use the Raspberry Pi camera is it’s a known quantity,” Bowman says. “It would also be possible to reuse a cheap webcam, but every webcam is slightly different, so you lose consistency.”

“That’s one of the challenges I see with open hardware getting mainstream in research, because the quality of the equipment affects the data you get,” says Victor Kumbol, a neuroscience PhD fellow at the Einstein Center for Neurosciences in Berlin, who built his own device to quantify animal activity during his master’s research at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana6.

Look for designs that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, such as HardwareX, where Kumbol published his design, or the Journal of Open Hardware. And pick devices with good documentation for construction, calibration and maintenance. In the past few months, for instance, Bowman has added a tool to the OpenFlexure microscope software that walks users through basic calibration steps.

Sometimes, however, DIY just isn’t a good option. “You need to know how precise your tool needs to be for a given task,” says Baden. A lab doing cutting-edge molecular-biology research, for instance, probably won’t want to save money on pipettes at the cost of accuracy, he says. But it might be able to balance costs and accuracy by buying precisely calibrated commercial pipettes for handling a couple of microlitres, and using less-precise 3D-printed ones for larger volumes.

Labs will have to navigate these trade-offs according to their research priorities, DIY experience and budget. But as the accessibility and sophistication of DIY hardware increases, so too will its uptake. “This is going to open up a lot of interesting possibilities,” Chagas says.

Business

Business: Oil predicted to hit $75 a barrel

becker blake

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image

How much higher can oil prices climb this year? Goldman Sachs now forecasts the price to hit $75 a barrel by summer, $10 above its prior forecast, and $70 by the spring – due to lower expected inventories and higher marginal costs.

The federal government says it will support the ethanol industry in a lawsuit over biofuel waivers granted to oil refineries under President Trump’s administration. The EPA is reversing course and will support a January 2020 decision by an appeals court in a lawsuit filed by the Renewable Fuels Association and farm groups. The lawsuit is headed to arguments before the Supreme Court this spring.

Royal Caribbean CEO Richard Fain told CNBC the cruise operator has seen a number of optimistic signs in its early booking data that suggest a positive recovery from the pandemic. Fain says more older people are signing up for cruises than expected, and there are more first-timers.

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window.modules["station-discover.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2);function _createForOfIteratorHelper(e,t){var r;if("undefined"==typeof Symbol||null==e[Symbol.iterator]){if(Array.isArray(e)||(r=_unsupportedIterableToArray(e))||t&&e&&"number"==typeof e.length){r&&(e=r);var a=0,i=function(){};return{s:i,n:function(){return a>=e.length?{done:!0}:{done:!1,value:e[a++]}},e:function(e){throw e},f:i}}throw new TypeError("Invalid attempt to iterate non-iterable instance.nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator]() method.")}var n,o=!0,s=!1;return{s:function(){r=e[Symbol.iterator]()},n:function(){var e=r.next();return o=e.done,e},e:function(e){s=!0,n=e},f:function(){try{o||null==r.return||r.return()}finally{if(s)throw n}}}}function _unsupportedIterableToArray(e,t){if(e){if("string"==typeof e)return _arrayLikeToArray(e,t);var r=Object.prototype.toString.call(e).slice(8,-1);return"Object"===r&&e.constructor&&(r=e.constructor.name),"Map"===r||"Set"===r?Array.from(e):"Arguments"===r||/^(?:Ui|I)nt(?:8|16|32)(?:Clamped)?Array$/.test(r)?_arrayLikeToArray(e,t):void 0}}function _arrayLikeToArray(e,t){(null==t||t>e.length)&&(t=e.length);for(var r=0,a=new Array }, {"5":5,"36":36,"38":38,"39":39}]; window.modules["stations-list.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_regenerator=require(8),_regenerator2=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_regenerator),_asyncToGenerator2=require(10),_asyncToGenerator3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_asyncToGenerator2),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2);require(127);var radioApi="".concat(window.location.protocol,"//").concat(window.location.hostname,"/api/v1/"),recentStations=require(126),radioApiService=require(30),_require=require(124),isMobileWidth=_require.isMobileWidth,STATIONS_DIRECTORY="stations directory",STATION_DETAIL="station detail",FEATURED="featured",safari=require(98),StationsList=function(){function t(e){var i=this;(0,_classCallCheck3.default)(this,t),this.el=e,this.allStationsCount=1e3,this.truncateStations=e.getAttribute("data-truncate"),this.filterStationsBy=e.getAttribute("data-filter-stations-by-track"),this.parentElement=e.parentElement,this.filterStationsByCategory=this.parentElement.getAttribute("data-category"),this.filterStationsByGenre=this.parentElement.getAttribute("data-genre"),this.filterStationsByMarket=this.parentElement.getAttribute("data-market"),this.seeAllLink=e.querySelector(".header-row__see-all-link"),this.setStationList(e),this.loadMoreBtn=e.querySelector(".stations-list__load-more"),this.loader=e.querySelector(".loader-container"),this.pageNum=1,this.pageSize=6;var n=document.body.querySelector(".content__main > section"),a=e.querySelector(".stations-list__data");n.classList.contains("component--stations-directory")?(this.pageType=STATIONS_DIRECTORY,this.directoryType=n.querySelector(".directory-body__directory-page").getAttribute("id").replace("stations-directory__","")):n.classList.contains("component--station-detail")&&(this.pageType=STATION_DETAIL),this.stationsData=a&&a.innerText?JSON.parse(a.innerText):[],this.updateStations(),this.loadMoreBtn&&this.loadMoreBtn.addEventListener("click",function(){return i.loadMoreStations()}),window.addEventListener("resize",this.toggleSeeAllLinkAndAds.bind(this)),document.addEventListener("stations-list-dismount",function(){window.removeEventListener("resize",i.toggleSeeAllLinkAndAds)},{once:!0})}return(0,_createClass3.default)(t,[{key:"resetStationsList",value:function(){var t=this.stationsList.getAttribute("data-initial-count"),e=this.stationsList.childElementCount;if(null===t&&(t=e,this.stationsList.setAttribute("data-initial-count",t)),(t=parseInt }, {"5":5,"8":8,"10":10,"30":30,"38":38,"39":39,"98":98,"124":124,"126":126,"127":127}]; window.modules["station-nav.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_regenerator=require(8),_regenerator2=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_regenerator),_asyncToGenerator2=require(10),_asyncToGenerator3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_asyncToGenerator2);function _createForOfIteratorHelper(e,r){var t;if("undefined"==typeof Symbol||null==e[Symbol.iterator]){if(Array.isArray(e)||(t=_unsupportedIterableToArray(e))||r&&e&&"number"==typeof e.length){t&&(e=t);var a=0,n=function(){};return{s:n,n:function(){return a>=e.length?{done:!0}:{done:!1,value:e[a++]}},e:function(e){throw e},f:n}}throw new TypeError("Invalid attempt to iterate non-iterable instance.nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator]() method.")}var i,s=!0,o=!1;return{s:function(){t=e[Symbol.iterator]()},n:function(){var e=t.next();return s=e.done,e},e:function(e){o=!0,i=e},f:function(){try{s||null==t.return||t.return()}finally{if(o)throw i}}}}function _unsupportedIterableToArray(e,r){if(e){if("string"==typeof e)return _arrayLikeToArray(e,r);var t=Object.prototype.toString.call(e).slice(8,-1);return"Object"===t&&e.constructor&&(t=e.constructor.name),"Map"===t||"Set"===t?Array.from(e):"Arguments"===t||/^(?:Ui|I)nt(?:8|16|32)(?:Clamped)?Array$/.test }, {"5":5,"8":8,"10":10,"21":21,"30":30,"124":124}]; window.modules["stations-carousel.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_regenerator=require(8),_regenerator2=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_regenerator),_asyncToGenerator2=require(10),_asyncToGenerator3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_asyncToGenerator2),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2),radioApi="".concat(window.location.protocol,"//").concat(window.location.hostname,"/api/v1/"),market=require(125),radioApiService=require(30),Hammer=require(90),localStorage=window.localStorage,hammerDirectionLeft=2,hammerDirectionRight=4,hammerDeltaXThreshold=5,StationsCarousel=function(){function t(e){(0,_classCallCheck3.default)(this,t),this.hammerTime=new Hammer(e),this.allStationsCount=303,this.stationsCarousel=e,this.innerContainerClass="stations-carousel__carousel",this.filterStationsBy=this.stationsCarousel.getAttribute("data-filter-stations-by-track"),this.genre=this.stationsCarousel.getAttribute("data-genre-track"),this.sectionFront=this.stationsCarousel.getAttribute("data-section-front-track"),this.stationsList=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector("ul"),this.leftArrow=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".stations-carousel__arrow--left"),this.rightArrow=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".stations-carousel__arrow--right"),this.paginationDots=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".carousel__pagination-dots"),this.curatedItems=this.stationsCarousel.querySelectorAll(".curated-item"),this.dotClass="pagination-dots__dot",this.marketID=localStorage.getItem("marketID"),this.pageSize=1,this.gutterWidth=Number(getComputedStyle(this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".".concat(this.innerContainerClass," li"))).marginRight.replace("px","")),this.imageSize=Number(getComputedStyle(this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".".concat(this.innerContainerClass," .thumb"))).width.replace("px",""))+this.gutterWidth,this.pageNum=1,this.windowWidth=window.innerWidth,this.windowSizes={large:1280,medium:1024,beforeMediumSmall:788,mediumSmall:480},this.hammerTime.get("swipe").set({threshold:5,velocity:.075}),"section-front"==this.filterStationsBy?this.filterByValue=this.sectionFront:"genre"==this.filterStationsBy&&(this.filterByValue=this.genre),this.updateStations()}return(0,_createClass3.default)(t,[{key:"setImageAndPageDims",value:function(){var t=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".".concat(this.innerContainerClass," li")),e=this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".".concat(this.innerContainerClass," .thumb"));if(this.pageSize=1,this.layoutWidth=getComputedStyle(this.stationsCarousel.querySelector(".".concat(this.innerContainerClass))).width,t&&(this.gutterWidth=Number(getComputedStyle }, {"5":5,"8":8,"10":10,"30":30,"38":38,"39":39,"90":90,"125":125}]; window.modules["stats-standings.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var applyWidgetScripts=require(128);module.exports=function }, {"128":128}]; window.modules["tags.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _=require(67),dom=require(118);function Constructor(e){this.el=e,this.showAll=dom.find(this.el,".more")}Constructor.prototype={showAll:function(e){var o=e.target;_.forEach(hiddenTags,function(e){e.classList.remove("hidden")}),o.parentNode.removeChild(o),e.preventDefault()}},module.exports=function(e){return new Constructor(e)}; }, {"67":67,"118":118}]; window.modules["theme.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var cssVars=require(131);cssVars({}); }, {"131":131}]; window.modules["top-nav.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";function _createForOfIteratorHelper(e,r){var t;if("undefined"==typeof Symbol||null==e[Symbol.iterator]){if(Array.isArray(e)||(t=_unsupportedIterableToArray(e))||r&&e&&"number"==typeof e.length){t&&(e=t);var n=0,a=function(){};return{s:a,n:function(){return n>=e.length?{done:!0}:{done:!1,value:e[n++]}},e:function(e){throw e},f:a}}throw new TypeError("Invalid attempt to iterate non-iterable instance.nIn order to be iterable, non-array objects must have a [Symbol.iterator]() method.")}var o,i=!0,c=!1;return{s:function(){t=e[Symbol.iterator]()},n:function(){var e=t.next();return i=e.done,e},e:function(e){c=!0,o=e},f:function(){try{i||null==t.return||t.return()}finally{if(c)throw o}}}}function _unsupportedIterableToArray(e,r){if(e){if("string"==typeof e)return _arrayLikeToArray(e,r);var t=Object.prototype.toString.call(e).slice(8,-1);return"Object"===t&&e.constructor&&(t=e.constructor.name),"Map"===t||"Set"===t?Array.from(e):"Arguments"===t||/^(?:Ui|I)nt(?:8|16|32)(?:Clamped)?Array$/.test }, {"75":75,"80":80,"132":132}]; window.modules["tweet.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2),embedsLibraryUrl="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js",TwitterEmbeds=function(){function e(){(0,_classCallCheck3.default)(this,e),window.twttr?this.process():document.querySelector('script[src="'.concat(embedsLibraryUrl,'"]'))||this.mount()}return(0,_createClass3.default)(e,[{key:"mount",value:function(){var e=this,t=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0],r=document.createElement("script");r.onload=function(){e.process()},r.src=embedsLibraryUrl,t.parentNode.insertBefore(r,t)}},{key:"process",value:function(){window.twttr.widgets.load()}}]),e}();module.exports=function(e){return new TwitterEmbeds(e)}; }, {"5":5,"38":38,"39":39}]; window.modules["verizon-media.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_regenerator=require(8),_regenerator2=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_regenerator),_asyncToGenerator2=require(10),_asyncToGenerator3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_asyncToGenerator2),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2),_inherits2=require(135),_inherits3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_inherits2),_possibleConstructorReturn2=require(134),_possibleConstructorReturn3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_possibleConstructorReturn2),_getPrototypeOf2=require(133),_getPrototypeOf3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_getPrototypeOf2);function _createSuper(e){var t=_isNativeReflectConstruct();return function(){var r,n=(0,_getPrototypeOf3.default)(e);if }, {"5":5,"8":8,"10":10,"38":38,"39":39,"133":133,"134":134,"135":135,"Video.legacy":"Video.legacy"}]; window.modules["web-player.client"] = [function(require,module,exports){"use strict";var _interopRequireDefault3=require(5),_interopRequireDefault2=_interopRequireDefault3(require(5)),_regenerator=require(8),_regenerator2=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_regenerator),_asyncToGenerator2=require(10),_asyncToGenerator3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_asyncToGenerator2),_classCallCheck2=require(38),_classCallCheck3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_classCallCheck2),_createClass2=require(39),_createClass3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_createClass2),_inherits2=require(135),_inherits3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_inherits2),_possibleConstructorReturn2=require(134),_possibleConstructorReturn3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_possibleConstructorReturn2),_getPrototypeOf2=require(133),_getPrototypeOf3=(0,_interopRequireDefault2.default)(_getPrototypeOf2);function _createSuper(e){var t=_isNativeReflectConstruct();return function(){var r,n=(0,_getPrototypeOf3.default)(e);if }, {"5":5,"8":8,"10":10,"38":38,"39":39,"106":106,"126":126,"133":133,"134":134,"135":135,"136":136,"Audio.legacy":"Audio.legacy"}]; 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50-State Update On COVID-19 Business Liability Protections | JD Supra

A number of states have passed or are considering passing legislation to shield certain businesses from liability from claims for injury caused by exposure to COVID-19. Generally, the laws require that the business was in compliance with relevant guidance at the federal, state or local level in order for the protection to apply. Most state laws do not shield liability where the injury was caused by wanton, reckless, willful or intentional misconduct. Some states at this time have only shielded healthcare professionals or other essential businesses; however, there appears to be a trend expanding liability protections to all businesses and premise owners.

Please click on the state you are interested in to view state-specific information:

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Alabama

The Alabama legislature passed Senate Bill No. 30, which provides that any business, healthcare provider, church, educational entity, government entity or cultural institution is immune from claims for injury caused by exposure to COVID-19, vaccinations for COVID-19 or providing personal protective equipment. The immunity does not apply if the injury is alleged to have been caused by “wanton, reckless, willful or intentional misconduct.” The Bill was sent to the Governor for her signature on February 11, 2021.

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Alaska

(Pending Legislation): The Alaska legislature introduced House Bill 4 in January 2021. The proposed bill provides for immunity from liability and disciplinary action for occupational licensees for exposure of clients to COVID-19, if the licensee was in substantial compliance with applicable laws and health mandates at the time of the client’s exposure. The Bill also provides immunity for a person who engages in business activities and employees if a customer is exposed to COVID-19 while patronizing the business. To be granted immunity, the business must be operating in substantial compliance with applicable laws and health mandates.

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Arizona

(Pending Legislation): On January 26, 2021, Senate Bill No. 1377 was introduced and passed the Senate Judiciary Committee on February 2, 2021. This Bill provides that if the Governor declares a state of emergency for a public health pandemic, a person or provider that acts in good faith to protect individuals from the public health pandemic is not liable for damages in any civil action unless it is proven by “clear and convincing evidence that the person or provider failed to act or acted with willful misconduct or gross negligence.” It provides the same protection and standard of proof for health professionals and healthcare institutions. Causes of action that occurred on or after March 11, 2020, and before December 31, 2022, would be included in this protection.

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Arkansas

Arkansas’s Governor issued Executive Order 20-33 on June 15, 2020, declaring that all persons and the person’s employees, agents and officers are immune from civil liability for damages or injuries caused by or resulting from exposure of an individual to COVID-19 on the premises owned or operated by those persons or during any activity managed by those persons. The immunity does not apply to willful, reckless or intentional misconduct resulting in injury or damages. The Order creates a presumption that all persons are (i) substantially complying with health and safety directives, or (ii) acting in good faith while attempting to comply with health and safety directives. The Order applies to all claims filed after June 15, 2020, and continues until the emergency is terminated.

(Pending Legislation): Senate Bill No. 17 was introduced in the Arkansas Senate on December 16, 2020, which would provide a person or a person’s employee, agent or office with immunity from civil liability for damages caused by or resulting from exposure of an individual to COVID-19 on a business’ premises. The immunity would not apply to “willful, reckless, or intentional misconduct.” The Bill also creates the presumption that a person is not committing “willful, reckless, or intentional misconduct” if the person is (i) substantially complying with health and safety directives, or (ii) acting in good faith while attempting to comply with health and safety directives concerning COVID-19.

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California

(Pending Legislation): On February 18, 2021, AB1152 was introduced which would create a standard of care on COVID-19 safety and a temporary limitation on liability in postsecondary educational institutions working to re-open for in-person education. An additional bill, AB 1759 is similarly pending, which would provide liability for all institutions of higher education, its officers and governing bodies that substantially complied with or operated in a manner consistent with applicable public health safety guidance for COVID-19. The Bill would exclude intentional misconduct, wanton or reckless misconduct, gross negligence, or willful and wanton negligence.

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Colorado

(Pending Legislation): Colorado has a number of current Bills pending that would protect entities that comply with public health guidelines related to COVID-19. HB21-1074 and SB 21-080 would establish immunity from civil liability for entities for acts or omissions that result in exposure, loss, damage, injury or death arising out of COVID-19 where that entity attempted in good faith to comply with applicable public health guidance. SB21-080 creates an additional exception for gross negligence or willful and wanton acts or omissions of the entity. If enacted, both Bills would be repealed 2 years after the date that the state of disaster emergency terminates. An additional Bill, SB20B-011, was introduced in 2020 but limited to small businesses.

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Connecticut

(Pending Legislation): House Bill No. 5125 was introduced on January 12, 2021. The Bill would provide temporary immunity from civil liability to businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, the state and any of its political subdivision that, on or after March 10, 2020, acted in substantial compliance with public health guidelines for any damages arising out of exposure to COVID-19, except in the instances of gross negligence or willful misconduct.

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Delaware

At this time, Delaware does not have any legislation specific to COVID-19 liability. However, under Title 20, Section 3121 of the Delaware Code, qualified medical personnel engaged in emergency or disaster relief operations and activities in connection with such emergency or disaster as declared by the Governor, shall not be liable for death or any injury to persons as a result of such relief operations. The statute excludes willful or wanton disregard of the rights of others.

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District of Columbia

The Council of the District of Columbia enacted the COVID-19 Response Supplemental Emergency Amendment Act of 2020 to address limitations on liability for certain persons performing tasks relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. The certain persons protected from liability include, but are not limited, to the following: (i) healthcare providers; (ii) first responders; (iii) donors of time, professional services, equipment or supplies for the benefit of persons or entities providing care for COVID-19 patients; (iv) contractors who are contracted to provide healthcare services related to the District’s COVID-19 response; and (v) parties involved in the healthcare process at the request of the District’s government. The Act was only effective until July 9, 2020.

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Florida

(Pending Legislation): On January 6, 2021, the Florida legislature proposed Senate Bill No. 72, and its identical counterpart House Bill No. 7, which would allow business entities, educational institutions, government entities and religious institutions to “enjoy heightened legal protections against liability as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.” A plaintiff who files a civil action based on a COVID-19-related claim must submit an affidavit signed by a physician who attests to the physician’s belief that the plaintiff’s COVID-19-related damages occurred as a result of the defendant’s acts or omissions. If the court determines that the defendant made a good faith effort to comply with applicable health standards, the defendant is immune from civil liability.

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Georgia

The Georgia COVID-19 Pandemic Business Safety Act (GCPBSA), signed by Governor Kemp on August 5, 2020, protects individuals and business from certain COVID-19-related liability claims. The GCPBSA went into effect August 7, 2020, and will remain in effect until July 14, 2021. To avoid liability, an individual or business must either (i) provide the guest with a receipt of proof of purchase for entry or (ii) post a warning sign at the point of entry to the premises, with the specific language being subject to the requirements specified in the Act. The GCPBSA does not apply in cases of gross negligence, willful and wanton misconduct, or reckless infliction of harm.

(Pending Legislation): House Bill No. 112 was introduced on January 26, 2021, and would extend the immunities from liability claims regarding COVID-19 until July 14, 2022.

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Hawaii

Under Executive Order No. 20-05, healthcare facilities, healthcare professionals and healthcare volunteers that in good faith comply with state and federal orders regarding the disaster emergency are immune from civil liability for death or injury to persons or property damage caused by their acts or omissions that occurred at a time when that individual was engaged in providing healthcare services.

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Idaho

The Idaho Coronavirus Limited Immunity Act was signed by the Governor on August 27, 2020. The Act provides that a person is immune from civil liability for damages resulting from exposure of an individual to COVID-19. The immunity can apply to individuals, businesses, cities, counties, school districts, universities, religious organizations and other units of local government. Immunity does not apply to acts or omissions that constitute an intentional tort or willful or reckless misconduct. This Act will remain in effect until July 1, 2021.

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Illinois

Through Governor Pritzker’s Executive Order No. 37, hospitals and healthcare professionals (including healthcare volunteers) are protected from civil liability for injury or death alleged to have been caused by an act or omission that occurred at a time when the hospital or healthcare professional was providing healthcare services in response to the COVID-19 outbreak and consistent with Illinois Department of Public Health guidelines. The immunity does not apply if such injury was caused by gross negligence or willful misconduct.

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Indiana

(Pending Legislation): Legislators in both the Indiana Senate and Indiana House of Representatives have introduced bills addressing business liability protections. Senate Bill No. 1 provides civil immunity if someone is exposed to COVID-19 at a business or a location where an organization is providing a service, including schools and local government functions. The Senate Bill passed both the Senate and House and has been returned to the Senate with amendments. House Bill No. 1002 provides immunity for healthcare workers from certain professional discipline during a state emergency but does not have any liability protection for employers. The House Bill passed the House and has been referred to the Senate. If passed, both Bills would be retroactive to March 1, 2020.

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Iowa

On June 18, 2020, Governor Reynolds signed the COVID-19 Response and Back-to-Business Limited Liability Act into law. The law protects businesses, landlords, nursing homes and medical facilities from COVID-19-related lawsuits, except under certain circumstances. Under the new law, persons who possess or are in control of a premises are not liable for civil damages arising out of an individual’s exposure to COVID-19 on the premises unless the person in control of the premises recklessly disregards a substantial and unnecessary risk or exposed the individual to COVID-19 maliciously or intentionally. The law provides a similar protection for healthcare providers unless the provider’s actions amount to recklessness or willful misconduct. It also protects any person that designs, manufacturers, labels, sells, distributes or donates cleaning supplies, personal protective equipment, tests or medications, medical devices, equipment, supplies or treatments in response to COVID-19 from civil liability for failure to provide proper instructions or warnings, unless the person had actual knowledge of a defect in the product and recklessly disregarded a substantial and unnecessary risk or the person acted with actual malice. The Act is retroactive to January 1, 2020.

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Kansas

Kansas passed the Business Liability Protection Act in June 2020. This Act establishes that healthcare providers are immune from civil liability for damages for acts and omissions as a direct response to any COVID-19 state of disaster emergency under Kansas Emergency Management Association (KEMA). The Act also establishes that a person (or agent of such person, e.g., an employee) conducting business in Kansas is immune from liability in a civil action for a COVID-19 claim if such person was acting pursuant to and in substantial compliance with public health directives applicable to the activity giving rise to the claim. The provisions related to immunity apply retroactively to any cause of action accruing on or after March 12, 2020. This business liability section of this legislation expired on January 26, 2021, while the healthcare provider immunity remains in place.

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Kentucky

(Pending Legislation): On January 5, 2021, the Kentucky Senate introduced Senate Bill No. 5 to provide liability protection for persons providing essential services related to a declared emergency during the period from when the emergency is declared until one year after the emergency declaration ends, except in cases of willful, grossly negligent or intentional misconduct. It also provides protections for owners who invite another person onto their premises during a declared emergency. Under the Bill, owners do not owe a duty to protect persons from or warn them about risks related to the declared emergency and do not assume responsibility or incur liability for any damages caused by the emergency.

On January 6, 2021, the Kentucky House of Representatives also introduced House Bill No. 10, which provides that any person acting in good faith in the performance of the person’s business operations, or on the premises owned or operated by the person, has a defense to civil liability for ordinary negligence for any personal injury resulting from exposure to COVID-19 if the person “acts as an ordinary, reasonable, and prudent person would have acted.” There is a rebuttable presumption that the safety measures adopted by a person are reasonable if they conform to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines.

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Louisiana

On June 16, 2020, the Louisiana Governor signed Act No. 336 into law. The law provides that “no natural or juridical person, state or local government, or political subdivision thereof shall be liable for any civil damages” related to exposure to COVID-19 in the course of their business operations. This limitation of liability does not apply if the person, government or political subdivision: (i) failed to substantially comply with applicable COVID-19 procedures or (ii) acted with gross negligence or wanton or reckless misconduct. The Act also provides liability protection for event organizers, producers, hosts and personal protective equipment manufacturers unless the damages were caused by gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct. Persons administering, employing or dispensing personal protective equipment in the state of Louisiana are also not liable for civil damages unless they: (a) did not substantially comply with COVID-19 guidelines or (b) acted with gross negligence or wanton or reckless misconduct.

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Maine

At this time, no pending or current legislation exists in Maine that would shield any entity from liability from injury as a result of exposure from COVID-19.

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Maryland

Pursuant to Md. Code Ann. Pub. Safety § 14-3A-06, which was in place prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a healthcare provider is immune from civil or criminal liability if the healthcare provider acts in good faith and under a catastrophic health emergency proclamation.

(Pending Legislation): Senate Bill No. 210 was introduced on January 13, 2021, and would provide civil immunity from liability for a COVID-19 claim to a person who acts in compliance with certain statutes, rules, regulations, executive orders and agency orders, unless the person acted with gross negligence or intentional wrongdoing. House Bill No. 508 was introduced on January 15, 2021, and is a similar to Senate Bill 210.

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Massachusetts

On April 17, 2020, the Massachusetts Governor signed Bill S.2640 into law. This law provides civil immunity for healthcare providers and facilities providing medical care during the COVID-19 emergency, absent gross negligence or other reckless or willful misconduct. Volunteer organizations are provided similar immunity if the claim arises out of the use of the facility as part of the commonwealth’s COVID-19 response.

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Michigan

On October 22, 2020, the Michigan Governor signed House Bill No. 6030 and House Bill No. 6031 into law. House Bill 6030, titled COVID-19 Response and Reopening Liability Assurance Act, provides immunity from tort liability from COVID-19 claims to a person (defined broadly to include individuals, businesses, government entities, education institutions and non-profit organizations) acting in compliance with COVID-19-regulations that “had not been denied legal effect at the time of the conduct or risk that allegedly caused harm.” House Bill 6031 amends the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act to provide immunity from liability for an employee’s exposure to COVID-19, if the employer is operating in compliance with COVID-19-related regulations that “had not been denied legal effect at the time of the exposure.” Both Bills are effective retroactive to March 1, 2020.

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Minnesota

(Pending Legislation): On February 1, 2021, Minnesota State Senators introduced Senate File No. 512 to provide healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, etc.), facilities (including, but not limited to hospitals, nursing homes and clinics), and responders civil immunity from COVID-19-related lawsuits. This immunity applies unless the act or omission constitutes intentional or reckless misconduct or gross negligence. In addition to providing broad immunity, SF 512 also contains administrative immunity provisions to retroactively protect healthcare entities and providers from government sanctions and financial penalties for health and safety violations occurring on or after March 13, 2020. A companion bill has also been introduced in the House of Representatives, House File No. 571.

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Mississippi

The Mississippi Back to Business Liability Assurance and Healthcare Emergency Response Liability Protection Act (Mississippi Code §§ 11-71-1 — 11-71-13) provides COVID-19 liability protections. The liability protections include the following:

  • Miss. Code § 11-71-5 establishes legal immunity from civil damages related to exposure to COVID-19 if a person, including premises owners and those in control of premises, makes a good faith attempt to follow applicable public health guidance. The Act also creates civil immunity for claims related to actual or alleged exposure to COVID-19 in the time before applicable public heath guidance was available.
  • Miss. Code § 11-71-7 establishes immunity for healthcare professionals or healthcare facilities during the entirety of the COVID-19 public health emergency and will terminate one year after the end of the COVID-19 public health emergency. The immunity applies to both acts or omissions related to treating COVID-19, as well as acts or omissions while providing healthcare services to persons unrelated to COVID-19 when those acts or omissions were intended to support the state’s response to the COVID-19 emergency.
  • Miss. Code § 11-71-9 establishes immunity from suit for civil damages for injuries related to exposure to COVID-19 for persons who make, sell or donate qualified medical products, cleaning supplies or personal protective equipment.

The immunities provided in the Act do not apply where the plaintiff shows, by clear and convincing evidence, that a defendant or any employee or agent thereof acted with actual malice or willful, intentional misconduct. There is a two-year statute of limitations on COVID-19-related claims. The Act and immunities that it establishes went into effect on March 14, 2020.

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Missouri

(Pending Legislation): In January 2021, Missouri lawmakers filed various pieces of legislation to provide protection from civil actions during the COVID-19 state of emergency. As of January 25, 2021, the Bills have been combined into Senate Bill No. 51. The Bill provides that healthcare providers who provide care necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic are not liable for any civil damages unless the damages are a result of malicious or intentional misconduct. This protection would apply to all civil actions filed on or after the effective date of the bill. Further, a premises owner is protected from liability from an individual’s claim for COVID-19 exposure, unless a plaintiff can prove intentional harm. There is a rebuttable presumption in favor of the owner when the owner posts a warning notice, with the specific language specified in the Bill.

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Montana

Senate Bill No. 65, signed into law on February 10, 2021, provides an affirmative defense for businesses and other private entities against legal liability in the event someone is injured or dies after being exposed to COVID-19 on their premises. To avail themselves of this shield, businesses must take “reasonable measures” to follow public-health guidelines. The only exceptions to this shield are actions constituting gross negligence, or willful and wanton misconduct, or intentional torts.

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Nebraska

(Pending Legislation): The Nebraska Legislature is considering Legislative Bill 139 intending to incentivize compliance with federal, state, and local safety standards and regulations by providing a “limited, temporary liability protection for those who comply with safety standards and regulations related to COVID-19.” The main components of the bill include: (i) a bar against lawsuits except in the case of hospitalization or death due to COVID-19; (ii) a bar against suing entities that were following federal and state laws or public health orders; (iii) a requirement that plaintiffs demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence that an entity acted with gross negligence or willful misconduct; and (iv) additional liability protections for healthcare providers who caused or contributed to the death or injury of an individual through acts or omissions while providing or arranging for healthcare services. Further, the Bill would create a two-year statute of limitations on claims of gross negligence and willful misconduct. If the Bill were to pass, it would apply to any cause of action accruing on or after the effective date and before the earlier of (i) December 31, 2022, or (ii) one year after the end of the COVID-19 state of emergency.

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Nevada

Nevada passed SB4 providing most businesses with immunity from liability where there is an alleged personal injury or death as a result of COVID-19 exposure, so long as they follow local, state, and federal health standards and the business doesn’t act with gross negligence and such negligence was the proximate cause of the personal injury or death. Expressly excluded from the law’s protections are home nursing agencies, facilities for hospice care, facilities for intermediate care, facilities for skilled nursing, hospitals, independent centers for emergency medical care, and public school entities for preschool, kindergarten, or grades 1 through 12, including school districts, charter schools or university schools for profoundly gifted pupils. The legislation is effective through the later of (i) the date of termination of the Governor’s Declaration of Emergency for COVID-19 or (ii) July 1, 2023.

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New Hampshire

(Pending legislation): On January 19, 2021, SB63 was introduced. This Bill would provide that no business organization shall be liable from personal injury resulting from or related to an actual or alleged exposure to COVID-19 in the course of such business’s activity or while working for such business organization, where that business organization was following applicable government standards. The liability shield will not apply to gross negligence, willful misconduct, intentional criminal misconduct or intentional infliction of harm. The Bill would also create a one-year statute of limitations for lawsuits alleging injury from COVID-19.

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New Jersey

New Jersey’s Governor Murphy signed Senate Bill No. 2333 granting immunity to healthcare professionals, facilities and systems during the COVID-19 emergency. The immunity extends to (i) civil liability for injury or death as a result of an act or omission by the healthcare professional, healthcare facility or systems in the course of providing care, including acts or omissions undertaken in good faith by the healthcare professional or facility to support the effort to treat or prevent the spread of COVID-19, and (ii) civil and criminal liability for any damages related to the allocation of ventilators or other scarce medical resources.

(Pending Legislation): New Jersey is considering Senate Bill 3006 which would restore civil liability of nursing homes and related facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic, which were granted immunity under SB 2333. Additionally, two bills were introduced in 2020, Assembly Bill 4189 and Senate Bill 2502, establishing immunity for businesses against any damage claims resulting from COVID-19 exposure occurring at the premises owned or operated by the employer, or during activity managed by the employer. The grant of immunity protection would not apply to willful misconduct, reckless infliction of harm or intentional infliction of harm.

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New Mexico

New Mexico’s Governor Grisham signed Executive Order 2020-083, in December 2020, providing for professional liability protection for medical professionals that are providing healthcare services related to COVID-19. The order highlights several issues that practitioners have faced during the pandemic, including but not limited to, extended hours with heavy workloads, personal illnesses and fewer resources.

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New York

New York’s Emergency or Disaster Treatment Protection Act immunized healthcare facilities and professionals from certain forms of liability during the COVID-19 pandemic, if they met certain conditions under the Act. Additionally, volunteer organization are immune from civil and criminal liability for any damages at their facilities that are a result of the state’s response to the emergency declaration. The Act expanded on Governor Cuomo’s Executive Order 202.10, signed on March 7, 2020, that provided protection for physicians and nurses from civil liability for acts or omissions that result in injury or death during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Act applies retroactively from March 7 and lasts until the New York COVID-19 emergency declaration expires. On August 3, 2020, Governor Cuomo signed Senate Bill 8835 rolling back some of the protections in the Emergency or Disaster Treatment Protection Act. In particular, the Bill removed the immunity protection for (i) treatment that was not directly related to treating a known or suspected case of COVID-19 and (ii) any preventative treatment related to COVID-19.

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North Carolina

North Carolina’s Act to Provide Limited Immunity from Liability for Claims Based on Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides limited immunity to businesses, individuals, government agencies and subdivisions, and other protected entities, referred to as “Covered Entities.” To receive the immunity, the Covered Entity must take some sort of protective action to prevent the spread of COVID-19 on its premises and provide reasonable notice of such safety plans to individuals present on the property. Covered Entities will not be liable for any act or omission alleged to have resulted in the contraction of COVID-19. The protection only applies for claims that arise within 180 days of the rescission or expiration of the Governor’s State of Emergency Executive Order.

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North Dakota

(Pending Legislation): On February 5, 2021, the North Dakota House of Representatives passed House Bill No. 1175 to shield employers from COVID-19-related lawsuits. The Bill was written to prevent civil lawsuits brought by employees—even employees working for healthcare providers—alleging contraction of COVID-19 following exposure at work, unless the employee believes that the employer intended to hurt the employee. As written, the Bill would apply retroactively to exposures occurring from the beginning of 2020.

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Ohio

(Pending Legislation): Ohio has two separate pieces of legislation aimed at providing protection for business regarding COVID-19 liabilities. On December 16, 2020, the House passed the Grant Immunity to Essential Workers Who Transmit COVID-19 Bill providing that no civil action for damages regarding injury, death or loss to person or property shall be brought against any person if the cause of action is based on COVID-19, unless it is established that exposure or transition was by reckless conduct or intentional misconduct on the part of the person. Under the Bill, “person” includes a school, for-profit or nonprofit entity, a governmental entity, a religious entity or a state institution of higher education. The second piece of legislation is Senate Bill 308 providing that no service provider shall be liable for damages to any person in a civil action resulting from a person’s exposure to COVID-19. This protection is set to expire on April 1, 2021.

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Oklahoma

Oklahoma has two laws providing liability protections in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. First, Senate Bill 1946 provides businesses and individuals with immunity from any civil action claiming injury from exposure or potential exposure to COVID-19, if the act or omission alleged to violate a duty of care was in compliance or consistent with federal or state regulations, a Presidential or Gubernatorial Executive Order, or guidance applicable at the time of the alleged exposure. Applicable guidance includes that which is issued by the CDC, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Oklahoma State Department of Health, and the Oklahoma Department of Commerce. Second, Senate Bill 1947 provides product liability immunity to any person or business that designs, manufactures, labels, sells, distributes or donates disinfecting and cleaning supplies or personal protective equipment during and in response to COVID-19 that does not make such products in the ordinary course of business, unless the person or business had actual knowledge that the product was defective or acted with deliberate indifference to or conscious disregard of a substantial and unnecessary risk that the product would cause serious injury to others.

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Oregon

Oregon’s Governor signed House Bill 4402 which provides protection for schools, both public and private, so long as they open in accordance with the Oregon Health Authority’s guidance on reopening schools. Such guidelines dovetail with county-by-county guidelines, whereby schools opening outside of their county’s risk level’s guidelines might not be afforded liability protections. The law applies to COVID-19 claims brought during the coronavirus state of emergency, currently in effect until March 3, 2021.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania’s Governor signed Executive Order to Enhance Protections for Health Care Professionals, which provides healthcare practitioners protection against liability for good faith actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic at any healthcare facilities, including nursing facilities, personal care homes, assisted living facilities and more. Further, the Executive Order provides immunity for any person or organization allowing real estate or other premises used for the treatment of COVID-19 patients from any liability in the case of death, injury or loss or damage to the property. The Executive Order does not grant immunity for acts or omissions that constitute a crime, gross negligence, or fraud, malice or willful misconduct. The Executive Order will remain in effect for the duration of the disaster emergency.

(Pending Legislation): The Pennsylvania General Assembly passed House Bill 1737 in November 2020. The bill included protection for medical professionals, manufacturers providing personal protective equipment and many other businesses. Additionally, the Bill would have protected farmers that provide agricultural tourism activities such as apple picking, corn mazes and Christmas-tree cutting. Governor Wolf vetoed the Bill on November 30, 2020.

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Rhode Island

Rhode Island Governor Raimondo’s Executive Order 20-21 provides immunity for certain healthcare workers and healthcare facilities. Specifically, the Executive Order classifies the following people as “disaster response workers” entitled to immunity and entitled to provide services beyond or without a license as permitted under Rhode Island Law: (i) healthcare workers providing community-based healthcare, services at surge hospitals and services in existing hospitals, nursing facilities and alternative nursing care sites, and (ii) landlords making the surge hospital locations and alternative nursing care sites available to the State, plus their employees, management companies and contractors providing services to construct, operate or decommission the surge hospital locations.” This Executive Order was only effective until May 8, 2020.

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South Carolina

(Pending Legislation): South Carolina is considering the COVID-19 Liability Safe Harbor Act. If passed, the COVID-19 Liability Safe Harbor Act would shield any business and non-profit organizations that adhere to the public health guidance from COVID-19 claims.

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South Dakota

The South Dakota legislature passed House Bill 1046, on February 8, 2021, prohibiting any claim or action for damages or relief alleging exposure or potential exposure to COVID-19, unless the exposure results in a COVID-19 diagnosis and the exposure is a result of intentional exposure with the intent to transmit COVID-19. This law applies to healthcare providers, business owners, and even personal protective equipment manufacturers and distributors. Governor Noem signed the legislation into law on February 18, 2021. The law covers claims from January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2022.

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Tennessee

Tennessee Governor Lee signed the Tennessee COVID-19 Recovery Act, prohibiting claims “against any person for loss, damage, injury, or death arising from COVID-19 unless the claimant proves by clear and convincing evidence that the person proximately caused the loss, damage, injury, or death by an act or omission constituting gross negligence or willful misconduct.” The protections are applicable to claims pursued against a broad category of “persons,” including healthcare providers, business entities and schools, as well as to claims pursued against governmental entities or employees.

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Texas

Governor Abbott has urged state law makers to pass legislation that would protect business owners, however, at this time, no such legislation has been introduced.

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Utah

Utah Governor Cox signed Senate Bill 5003, which provides immunity from civil liability if a person is exposed to COVID-19 on a person’s premises. The immunity protects any person from civil liability if someone is exposed to COVID-19 while on the premises of that person. “Persons” include businesses and organizations. Further, this immunity is in addition to any other immunity found under Utah law. The immunity is not absolute and does not include immunity for willful, reckless or intentional misconduct.

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Vermont

Addendum 9 to Executive Order 01-20 provides that healthcare facilities, healthcare providers and healthcare volunteers are immune from civil liability for any death, injury or loss resulting from COVID-19-related emergency management services or response activities, except in the case of willful misconduct or gross negligence.

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Virginia

SB 5082, signed into law by Governor Northam, provides immunity from civil lawsuits to hospices, assisted living facilities, and related providers related to injury or death from exposure to COVID-19 or from other injury that was a result of lack of resources due to the COVID-19 disaster.

Virginia Code Sections 8.01-225.01-02 similarly provide immunity to all healthcare providers during a disaster, for response to a disaster or withholding from healthcare when a state or local emergency has been declared. The liability protection does not cover acts of gross negligence or willful misconduct.

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Washington

At this time, no pending or current legislation exists in Washington that would shield any entity from liability from injury as a result of exposure from COVID-19.

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West Virginia

At this time, no pending or current legislation exists in Washington that would shield any entity from liability from injury as a result of exposure from COVID-19.

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Wisconsin

Sections 98 through 104 of the 2019 Wisconsin Act 185, effective April 15, 2020, provide liability for healthcare workers. Healthcare workers must have in good faith substantially complied with direction, guidance, recommendations, or statements made by federal, state or local officials or guidance published by state or federal health departments. Further, wanton and reckless conduct is not covered. Further, any person who manufactures, distributes, sells, or donates emergency medical supplies is immune from civil liability.

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Wyoming

Wyoming’s COVID-19 liability protections under Enrolled Act No. 2 include protections for businesses and employees, who act in good faith in responding to the COVID-19 health emergency and follow the instructions of state, city, town or county officials, from civil suits related to actual or potential exposure to COVID-19. There is no protection for willful, reckless, intentional or grossly negligent misconduct, and employees are not barred from filing workers’ compensation claims related to actual or potential workplace exposure to COVID-19. These protections expire on June 30, 2021.

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Powell Testifies as Focus on Economic Pain Persists: Live Updates

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Powell Testifies as Focus on Economic Pain Persists: Live Updates

 

Jerome Powell returned to Capitol Hill as Democrats push for a new $1.9 trillion spending plan.
Credit…Al Drago for GFN

Jerome H. Powell, the chair of the Federal Reserve, told lawmakers that the economic rebound from the pandemic recession had further to go and reiterated that the central bank planned to keep up its growth-stoking policies, which include rock-bottom interest rates and large-scale bond buying.

“The economic recovery remains uneven and far from complete, and the path ahead is highly uncertain,” Mr. Powell said in prepared remarks he delivered to the Senate Banking Committee on Tuesday. “Although there has been much progress in the labor market since the spring, millions of Americans remain out of work.”

Unemployment has come down sharply after surging last year, but the official jobless rate remains at nearly double its February 2020 level and probably understates the extent of weakness in the labor market. Likewise, consumer spending has bounced back but the service sector remains subdued.

The Fed slashed interest rates to near-zero last March and is buying about $120 billion in government-backed bonds each month, policies aimed at fueling lending and spending. Congress and the White House have also provided support in the form of enormous spending packages, and Democrats are now pushing for another $1.9 trillion in relief for workers and businesses.

Some economists have warned that inflation could take off as vaccines allow consumer activity to pick up and as the government pumps money into the economy, but Fed officials have generally played down those concerns. Mr. Powell said on Tuesday that inflation dynamics generally do not “change on a dime” and that if unwanted price pressures arise, the Fed has the tools to push back on them.

For now, “the economy is a long way from our employment and inflation goals, and it is likely to take some time for substantial further progress to be achieved,” Mr. Powell said, reiterating a pledge to keep up buying bonds at the current pace until “substantial further progress” has been made.

Senator Patrick J. Toomey, Republican of Pennsylvania, asked whether the Fed’s policies might be fueling higher asset prices. Mr. Powell acknowledged that there was a “link” but said “many factors” were contributing.

And Mr. Toomey pressed Mr. Powell on what would happen to the Fed’s bond-buying plans if inflation moved up before full employment was achieved, prompting Mr. Powell to reiterate that the Fed was looking for more progress before dialing back purchases.

Mr. Powell said at one point that he would avoid weighing in on fiscal policy — a comment he made not long after Mr. Toomey said the central bank should avoid moving beyond its narrow economic mandate and into areas like racial inequity and climate change. The Fed is politically independent and tends to avoid partisan issues, though it has been providing advice to policymakers in Congress and weighing in on socioeconomic disparities over the past year.

“I, today, will really stay away from fiscal policy,” Mr. Powell said when asked specifically about the gender gap in the labor market. “There is still a long way to go to full recovery, and we intend to keep our policy supportive of that recovery.”

After it rocketed higher last year, the United States’ official unemployment rate has fallen to 6.3 percent. But top economic officials are increasingly citing a different figure, one that puts the jobless rate at a far higher 10 percent.

The higher figure includes people who have stopped looking for work, and the disparity between the official rate and the expanded statistic underlines the unusual nature of the pandemic shock and reinforces the idea that the economy remains far from a full recovery.

The reality that labor market weakness lingers, a year into the pandemic, could come up again as Jerome H. Powell, the Federal Reserve chair, testifies before Congress starting on Tuesday. Mr. Powell is speaking before the Senate Banking Committee on Tuesday and the House Financial Services Committee on Wednesday.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics tallies how many Americans are looking for work or are on temporary layoff midway through each month. That number, taken as a share of the civilian labor force, is reported as the official unemployment rate.

But economists have long worried that by relying on the headline rate, they ignore people they shouldn’t, including would-be employees who are not actively applying for jobs because they are discouraged or because they are waiting for the right opportunity.

Now, key policymakers are all but ditching the headline statistic, rather than just playing down its comprehensiveness. In an alternate unemployment figure, they’re adding back people who have left the job market since last February, along with those who are misclassified in the official report.

“We have an unemployment rate that, if properly measured in some sense, is really close to 10 percent,” Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen said on CNBC last week. And a week earlier, Mr. Powell cited a similar figure in a speech about lingering labor market damage.

“Published unemployment rates during Covid have dramatically understated the deterioration in the labor market,” Mr. Powell said recently. People dropped out of jobs rapidly when the economy closed, and with many restaurants, bars and hotels shut, there is nowhere for many workers who are trained in service work to apply.

Wall Street faced another day of losses on Tuesday, following European stock markets lower. Technology stocks continued to lead the decline.

Stocks have dropped recently as a rise in U.S. inflation expectations and bond yields has raised concerns that the Federal Reserve will tighten its monetary policy sooner than expected, upending the easy-money policies that have helped bolster stocks during the pandemic.

The central bank’s policymakers have said they would look past a short-term rise inflation and keep supporting the economy, a message that Jerome H. Powell, the central bank chair, repeated in testimony before the Senate Banking Committee on Tuesday.

  • The S&P 500 fell 1 percent on Tuesday. The technology-heavy Nasdaq composite fell more than 2 percent.

  • Tesla shares dropped about 6 percent, after falling about 9 percent on Monday as Bitcoin prices also tumbled. Over the weekend, Elon Musk tweeted that prices of Bitcoin and Ether, the two largest cryptocurrencies, “do seem high.” A few weeks ago, the electric carmaker said it bought $1.5 billion in Bitcoin, sending prices of both soaring.

  • The Stoxx 600 Europe fell 0.4 percent.

  • The unemployment rate in Britain rose to 5.1 percent for the three months ending in December, 1.4 percentage points higher than it was a year earlier, official statistics showed on Tuesday. Job losses have fallen particularly hard on young people: The number of employees on company payrolls has declined by 726,000 in the past year, nearly three-fifths of these workers were under 25.

Shoppers at the Macy’s flagship store in Manhattan’s Herald Square on Black Friday.&nbsp;<br>The retailer posted a net loss of $3.9 billion for the year that ended Jan. 31.
Credit…Gabby Jones for GFN

Macy’s, the department store company that also owns Bloomingdale’s and Bluemercury, said on Tuesday that its net sales in 2020 tumbled 29 percent to $17.3 billion, highlighting the toll that the pandemic has taken on mall chains and apparel stores.

The retailer swung to a net loss of $3.9 billion for the year that ended Jan. 31, from a $564 million profit the prior year. But the company said it “anticipates 2021 as a recovery and rebuilding year,” with momentum building in the second half, particularly after a better than expected fourth quarter and holiday selling season, which was profitable even as sales dropped by 19 percent from the same period a year earlier.

With more than 700 stores, Macy’s is often viewed as a barometer for the health of department stores, malls and American consumers. On Tuesday, executives emphasized that Macy’s was building out its digital business, which it expects to reach $10 billion in sales in the next three years, moving out of lower-performing American malls and expanding its off-price chains like Macy’s Backstage, which aims to compete with T.J. Maxx and Nordstrom Rack. It is also testing stores away from malls.

Although the company’s sales have jumped in areas like home, luxury skin care and fragrances, “all of apparel remains challenged,” Jeff Gennette, Macy’s chief executive, said on an earnings call on Tuesday. “While we are doing well in the casual categories, the dress categories remain depressed.”

Mr. Gennette said that Macy’s had a “ramp-up” strategy with vendors to lean into new inventory, if the company sees signs of improvement as vaccinations start to scale and customers start booking events like weddings again.

Even before the pandemic hit, Macy’s was under strain. Last February, the company, which is based in New York, said that it planned to close about 125 of its least productive stores over three years and cut about 2,000 corporate and support function positions. Sales in 2019 had fallen to $24.6 billion from $25 billion a year earlier, and the company’s declining stock led to its removal from the S&P 500 last year.

Many consumers stayed away from malls and department stores in the past year and bought far less apparel in a newly isolated world. Macy’s place in American culture also took a hit, as the outbreak reduced its annual fireworks display and Thanksgiving Day parade in New York.

Cameron Barr, a managing editor overseeing news and features, will serve as acting executive editor of The Washington Post.
Credit…Marvin Joseph/The Washington Post

Martin Baron, who led a revival of The Washington Post in his eight years as executive editor, will leave a big hole in the newsroom when he retires on Feb. 28. To take his place until a successor is found, the paper on Tuesday named Cameron Barr, a managing editor overseeing news and features, acting executive editor. Mr. Barr, 57, has effectively worked as Mr. Baron’s No. 2 since 2015.

“The search for the next executive editor is actively underway with a broad and diverse group of exceptional journalists,” The Post’s publisher, Frederick J. Ryan Jr., wrote in a memo to the staff on Tuesday. “It will not be complete prior to Marty’s departure at the end of this month.” He also called on the staff to give its “full support” to Mr. Barr.

Mr. Baron’s decision to call it a career was not a surprise. But when he formally announced his retirement last month, giving five weeks notice, the hunt for his replacement had not begun in earnest. That made the appointment of an interim newsroom leader all but inevitable, and Mr. Barr, described by Mr. Ryan in the memo as the paper’s “longest-tenured managing editor,” was a natural candidate.

Mr. Barr started at The Post in 2004. Before he was named to a managing editor post in 2015, he worked as a reporter, the national security editor, the Middle East editor and the national editor. Before joining The Post, Mr. Barr worked at The Christian Science Monitor for nearly 15 years, with stints as a correspondent in Tokyo and Jerusalem.

Mr. Baron, 66, was the top editor at The Miami Herald and The Boston Globe before taking the top newsroom job at The Post. At all three stops, his newspapers collected at least one Pulitzer Prize. At The Globe, he oversaw a landmark investigation into sexual abuse within the Roman Catholic Church, a series that was adapted into the Academy Award-winning film “Spotlight,” with the actor Liev Schreiber playing Mr. Baron.

At The Post, he presided over an ownership change from the Graham family, which had run the paper for four generations, to the Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, who bought The Post in 2013 for $250 million. Under Mr. Baron, The Post’s newsroom has grown, as have its digital subscriptions.

The competition to succeed him will be fierce. Mr. Ryan, the publisher since 2014, will have the biggest say in naming his replacement, and Mr. Bezos is expected to have some input.

L Brands has said that it is weighing a sale or spinoff of Victoria’s Secret by August.
Credit…Brendan Mcdermid/Reuters

Less than a year after the pandemic thwarted an effort to sell Victoria’s Secret to the investment firm Sycamore Partners, the lingerie chain’s owner, L Brands, will again test private equity’s appetite for the business, according to the DealBook newsletter.

L Brands’ bankers at Goldman Sachs will begin formally pitching buyout firms about a potential takeover as soon as this week. L Brands said this month that it was weighing a sale or spinoff of Victoria’s Secret by August, as it focuses on its faster-growing Bath & Body Works division.

Victoria’s Secret had “substantially increased its valuation” and that L Brands was still evaluating all options for the business, Stuart Burgdoerfer, the chief financial officer of L Brands, said in a statement.

Victoria’s Secret has embarked on a turnaround effort since the Sycamore sale collapsed. A priority has been overhauling its brand, as younger customers shunned its overtly sexy products for alternatives focused on comfort and criticized its marketing as exclusionary.

Victoria’s Secret has overhauled its marketing, introducing a campaign last year that featured transgender, plus-size and older models. It is bringing back its much beloved swimwear brands to select stores.

The company has also changed up its management after former top executives were accused of misogyny and sexual harassment. New hires have included Martha Pease as chief marketing officer and Patti Cazzato as head of merchandising.

The lingerie market is in demand. A recent investment valued Rihanna’s Savage x Fenty brand at $1 billion, for example. For prospective buyers, Victoria’s Secret remains a well-known label with a sizable market share.

Still, potential acquirers may have one lingering concern: the continuing investigations and shareholder lawsuits about the ties between L Brands’ chairman, Les Wexner, and Jeffrey Epstein.

Sapna Maheshwari contributed reporting.

On the second day of the DealBook DC Policy Project, we will hear from more policymakers and business leaders about the challenges for the coronavirus vaccine rollout, the future of financial regulation and the outlook for bipartisanship in polarized times.

Here is the lineup (all times Eastern):

12:30 P.M. – 1 P.M.

Karen Lynch took over CVS Health this month as the pharmacy chain takes center stage in efforts to fight the pandemic. It is working with the government to distribute the coronavirus vaccine in its stores, as well as in nursing homes and assisted-living facilities. To aid in those efforts, the company hired 15,000 employees at the end of last year, staffing up to deal with what President Biden has called “gigantic” logistical hurdles to the vaccine rollout.

2:30 P.M. – 3 P.M.

At the center of the recent meme-stock frenzy was the online brokerage firm Robinhood, which has attracted millions of users with commission-free trades but drew outrage among its users when it halted trading in GameStop and other stocks at the height of the mania.

Vlad Tenev, Robinhood’s chief executive, is fresh from facing hours of hostile questioning at a congressional hearing last week about his company’s business practices. Joining him to discuss what regulators should now do — if anything — is Jay Clayton, the veteran Wall Street lawyer who led the Securities and Exchange Commission during the Trump administration. From the beginning of his tenure, Mr. Clayton said that his mission was protecting “the long-term interests of the Main Street investor.”

5:30 P.M. – 6 P.M.

Senator Mitt Romney, Republican of Utah, crossed party lines to vote to convict President Donald J. Trump on articles of impeachment, twice. He is also drafting a bill with Senator Tom Cotton, Republican of Arkansas, that would raise the minimum wage while forbidding businesses to hire undocumented immigrants. This is typical of Mr. Romney’s approach, speaking to concerns on both sides of the aisle in an era of stark partisan divisions.

HSBC’s headquarters in Hong Kong. The bank, which is based in London, derives more than half of its revenue from China.
Credit…Jerome Favre/EPA, via Shutterstock

HSBC is deepening its focus on Asia as it looks to unload some of its troubled Western operations, the bank said on Tuesday.

Noel Quinn, the chief executive, said the bank would invest $6 billion to expand its wealth management and wholesale banking business in Hong Kong, China and Singapore over the next five years. He also said he was considering relocating some of the bank’s top executives to Hong Kong because it would be “important to be closer to growth opportunities.”

Underscoring the turn toward Asia, the bank, which is based in London, also said it was considering the sale of its U.S. retail banking network and was in talks with potential buyers for its French consumer banking unit.

HSBC, which derives more than half of its revenue from China, has come under increasing political pressure from China and Britain over its business operations in Hong Kong, the former British colony. Pro-Beijing lawmakers in the city have publicly pressured it to embrace the Communist Party’s firmer grip on Hong Kong. When some executives have pledged support to Beijing, British members of Parliament have hammered the bank.

The political focus on HSBC is unlikely to ease and any future public statement about plans to move top executives to Hong Kong could prompt further criticism from British lawmakers.

“We haven’t firmed up our plans yet,” Mr. Quinn said on a call with reporters. “But the majority of executives will remain in London.”

HSBC, which reported its profit before tax in 2020 fell by 34 percent to $8.8 billion compared with a year earlier, blamed the pandemic for its financial performance.

Ardagh’s can-making business has grown by working with several seltzer-based beverage companies, like White Claw and Truly Hard Seltzer.
Credit…Richa Naidu/Reuters

The company that makes the aluminum cans used by LaCroix, White Claw and other beverage giants is spinning off that business in a deal that values the new company at $8.5 billion, the company announced Tuesday.

The deal by the Ardagh Group, which is based in Luxembourg, would be in the form of a merger with a special-purpose acquisition vehicle, or SPAC, backed by an affiliate of the Gores Group, a private equity firm based in California.

It is a bet on the continued growth of the can business, as companies increasingly weigh the environmental consequences of their products. Nestlé announced the sale of its water business for $4.3 billion this month, in part a move to shift away from water packaged in plastic. Aluminum cans are far easier to recycle than plastic bottles.

Ardagh will retain a roughly 80 percent stake in the company after the deal. Investors are contributing a $600 million private placement, while Gores is putting in $525 million in cash. The new company, Ardagh Metal Packaging, will issue $2.65 billion of new debt. Those proceeds will go to Ardagh.

The deal, involving an already-public company carving off a unit with the backing of a SPAC, is the latest twist on a SPAC transaction. The Gores Group’s experience in SPACs was part of its appeal to Ardagh as a buyer, said Ardagh’s chair, Paul Coulson.

The Gores SPAC, named Gores Holdings V, is the seventh such deal the group has done. “You don’t really want to be going to a surgeon and have him perform his first surgery,” Mr. Coulson said.

Ardagh generates more half its roughly $7 billion in annual sales from making cans for beverage companies. This past year, sales by the unit grew 2 percent, fueled by beverage sales and environmental awareness, while earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortization grew 8 percent. Ardagh will keep its glass packaging business.

For beverage companies, cans have become an increasingly important tool for branding, providing colorful and sleek packaging.

When Ardagh acquired its canning operation in 2016 for $3 billion, it did most of its business with legacy brands like large soda and beer companies. It has since worked with younger and faster-growing seltzer-based brands like White Claw, LaCroix and Truly Hard Seltzer to help charge its growth. To prepare for further expected expansion in the United States, it bought a factory in Huron, Ohio.

Globally, the company is considering growth in Europe and Brazil, where beer sales remain strong as consumers are increasingly shifting from tap to cans.

Shelly Ross found herself in a bureaucratic nightmare after requesting a second loan via PayPal for Tales of the Kitty, her San Francisco cat-sitting business.
Credit…Anastasiia Sapon for GFN

Nearly a month into the second run of the Paycheck Protection Program, $126 billion in emergency aid has been distributed by banks, which make the government-backed loans, to nearly 1.7 million small businesses.

But a thicket of errors and technology glitches has slowed the relief effort and vexed borrowers and lenders alike, Stacy Cowley reports for GFN.

Some are run-of-the-mill challenges magnified by the immense demand for loans, which has overwhelmed customer service representatives. But many stem from new data checks added by the Small Business Administration to combat fraud and eliminate unqualified applicants.

Instead of approving applications from banks immediately, the S.B.A. has held them for a day or two to verify some of the information. That has caused — or exposed — a cascade of problems. Formatting applications in ways that will pass the agency’s automated vetting has been a challenge for some lenders, and many have had to revise their technology systems almost daily to keep up with adjustments to the agency’s system. False red flags, which can require time-consuming human intervention to fix, remain a persistent problem.

Numerated, a technology company that processes loans for more than 100 lenders, still has around 10 percent of its applications snarled in error codes, down from a peak of more than 25 percent, said Dan O’Malley, the company’s chief executive.

Nearly 5 percent of the 5.2 million loans made last year had “anomalies,” the agency revealed last month, ranging from minor mistakes like typos to major ones like ineligibility. Even tiny mistakes can spiral into bureaucratic disasters.

If confirmed, Wally Adeyemo will be a pivotal player in America’s economic diplomacy efforts.
Credit…Leah Millis/Reuters

Wally Adeyemo, President Biden’s nominee for deputy Treasury Secretary, plans to emphasize the importance of rebuilding the United States’ alliances to combat China’s unfair trade practices and halt foreign interference in the country’s democratic institutions at his confirmation hearing on Tuesday, according to a copy of his prepared remarks, which were reviewed by GFN.

His remarks highlight the importance that the Biden administration is placing on multilateralism as it seeks to undo many of the economic policies put in place by former President Donald J. Trump.

Mr. Adeyemo will tell members of the Senate Finance Committee that Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen has asked him to focus on national security matters at the department. If confirmed, he will be a pivotal player in the country’s economic diplomacy efforts.

“We must reclaim America’s credibility as a global leader, advocating for economic fairness and democratic values,” Mr. Adeyemo will say.

Mr. Adeyemo is expected to be introduced at the hearing by Senator Elizabeth Warren, the progressive Democrat from Massachusetts. Ms. Warren, who established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau before joining the Senate, worked with Mr. Adeyemo, who served as her first chief of staff.

Mr. Adeyemo will discuss the nexus between economic and national security, arguing that “Made in America” policies will make the country more competitive around the world. If confirmed, he is expected to conduct a broad review of Treasury’s sanctions program, which the Trump administration used aggressively, but often haphazardly, against Iran, North Korea, Venezuela and other countries.

“Treasury’s tools must play a role in responding to authoritarian governments that seek to subvert our democratic institutions; combating unfair economic practices in China and elsewhere; and detecting and eliminating terrorist organizations that seek to do us harm,” Mr. Adeyemo, a former Obama administration official, will say.

Born in Nigeria, Mr. Adeyemo emigrated with his parents to the United States when he was a baby and settled in Southern California outside Los Angeles. At the hearing, he will also talk about his working-class upbringing and the need to ensure that low-income communities and communities of color, which have been hit hardest by the pandemic, receive relief.

The coronavirus pandemic dealt a big blow to WeWork’s business.
Credit…Kate Munsch/Reuters

Adam Neumann, the flamboyant co-founder of WeWork, and SoftBank, the Japanese conglomerate that rescued the co-working company in 2019, have in recent weeks made significant headway toward settling their drawn-out legal dispute, according to two people with knowledge of the matter. That battle has stalled SoftBank’s efforts to take WeWork public.

As part of its multibillion-dollar bailout of WeWork, SoftBank offered to pay $3 billion for stock owned by Mr. Neumann and other shareholders. Several months later, after the coronavirus pandemic had emptied WeWork’s locations, SoftBank withdrew the offer. Mr. Neumann then sued SoftBank for breach of contract.

SoftBank was already a big investor in WeWork when it withdrew plans for an initial public offering in 2019. Now, SoftBank has plans to combine WeWork with a publicly traded special-purpose acquisition company, a type of deal that has recently become a popular way of quickly bringing private companies public. The legal dispute between Mr. Neumann and SoftBank is a threat to such a deal because it leaves unresolved the question of how much control SoftBank has over WeWork.

The settlement talks, which were reported earlier by The Wall Street Journal, could still fall apart, the two people said. Under the terms being discussed, SoftBank would buy half the number of shares that it had originally agreed to, one of the people said. As a result, it would pay $1.5 billion, not $3 billion. Mr. Neumann would get nearly $500 million instead of almost $1 billion, but he would retain more of his shares.

Under Mr. Neumann, WeWork grew at a breakneck pace and was using up so much cash that it was close to bankruptcy before SoftBank stepped in. Under the management team SoftBank installed, WeWork has tried to cut costs by slowing its growth and negotiating deals with the landlords it rents space from.

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